Ajuda:AFI per al català

Les taules següents mostren la manera per la qual l'Alfabet Fonètic Internacional (AFI) representa les pronunciacions de la llengua catalana en els articles de la Viquipèdia. Hi ha dos blocs principals: el català oriental (que en la taula representarem per Catalunya C) i el català occidental (que en la taula representarem per País Valencià) V. No hi ha preferències d'una variant sobre l'altra a la Viquipèdia, excepte en els casos en què una pronunciació local és clarament més rellevant (com un lloc al País Valencià o un artista del Principat).

Consulteu la fonologia catalana per a una mirada més a fons dels sons en català.

Guia per al català i valencià estàndardModifica

AFI Consonants
 
C
 
V
Exemples
b b bell, àmbit, capgròs [1]
(v) vell, watts [1][2]
β avanç, selva [3]
b abans, arbre [3]
d drac, indret, ritme [1]
ð cada, lladre [3]
f força, bafs, salv
ɡ guant, angle, guiar, ècdisi [1]
ɣ aigües, agrat, lloguer [3]
k cors, quan, qui, llarg, Folch, kiwi
l laca, tela, cel·la,[4] val [5]
ʎ llacs, cella,[4] vall
m meu, em, canvi [5]
n neu, on, dansa [5]
ɲ nyeu, any, penges [5]
ŋ sang, tinc, cigne [5]
p por, dubte
r ruc, mirra, honra [6]
ɾ truc, mira, hora, per [6]
s set, rossa, està, ascens, cel, feliç
ts potser, tots, fluids, hertz
ʃ ʃ Xixona, guix, ells, sushi [7]
jʃ caixa, peix
xec, clenxa, Barx
txec, empatx, raig, mig [7]
t terra, fred
v hafni, bafs d'aigua [1]
z z zel, onze, rosa, esma, feliçment [1]
dz utilitza
dz tretze, tots alhora [1]
ʒ ʒ guix blau [1][7]
jʒ caixmir, peix de roca [1][7]
j jo, ja [1][7]
joc, aljub, gespa, sorgir [7]
mitjà, viatge, adjunt, migdia [1][7]
AFI Consonants prestades
θ theta, Pozo [8]
h ehem [9]
x kharja, Jaén, Bach [10]
AFI Vocals tòniques[11]
 
C
 
V
Exemples
a sac, ànecs
ɛ ɛ set, pèls, essències
e sec, cafè / café, què
e séc, anells
i sic, ties, país, raïm
ɔ soc, mòlt, això
o sóc, molt
u suc, dues, ús, reüll
AFI Vocals àtones
 
C
 
V
Exemples
ə a dona, amb, entens
e dones, ens, que
i naixement
i fillet, llavis, hi posa, aïllar
u o oratge, baixos, posar-ho
u fullet, ritu, cobert, ho posa
AFI Altres vocals àtones
a ad hoc, allegro (also /a/ in V)
e ídem, oceans (also /e/ in V)
o ego, mourà, caos (also /o/ in V)
AFI Semivocals[12]
 
C
 
V
Exemples
j iogurt, llei, hi ha, posa-hi, York, Laia
w quatre, Güell, lleu, posa-ho, web
AFI Suprasegmentals
 
C
 
V
Exemples
ˈ dac [ˈdiðək] (C) / [ˈdiðak] (V)
ˌ Bellpuig [ˌbeʎˈputʃ] (C / V)
. Maria [məˈɾi.ə] (C) / [maˈɾi.a] (V)
ː Imma [ˈimːə] (C) / [ˈimːa] (V)
AFI Altres representacions
( ) Corts [ˈkoɾ(t)s] (C / V)


NotesModifica


  1. 1,00 1,01 1,02 1,03 1,04 1,05 1,06 1,07 1,08 1,09 1,10 Obstruents assimilate to the place of articulation of the following consonant. In syllables produced in utterance-final position (i.e. the coda), voiced obstruents become devoiced.
  2. While betacism (that is, the merging of /b/ and /v/ into one phoneme) is common in most speakers of in Catalan and Valencia, several dialects still contrast the two sounds (represented as b and v respectively in Catalan orthography). The contrast is also maintained in Valencià estàndard and among cultivated Catalan speakers.
  3. 3,0 3,1 3,2 3,3 Voiced stops /b, d, ɡ/ become lenited [β, ð, ɣ] (that is, approximants or fricatives of the same place of articulation) when in the syllable onset and after a continuant. Otherwise they are pronounced as voiced or devoiced stops, similar to English b, d, g and p, t, k. Exceptions include /d/ after a lateral consonant, and /b/ after /f/. In traditional non-betacist dialects, /b/ fails to lenite.
  4. 4,0 4,1 Catalan orthography distinguishes between ll (representing /ʎ/) and l·l (representing a geminated /lː/). In regular speech gemination of l·l is ignored altogether. Some dialects as well as young speakers can merge /ʎ/ with the glide [j] in a process similar to Spanish yeísmo.
  5. 5,0 5,1 5,2 5,3 5,4 /n/ and /l/ assimilate the place of articulation of a following consonant.
  6. 6,0 6,1 The rhotic consonants r /ɾ/ and rr /r/ only contrast between vowels. Otherwise, they are in complementary distribution as r with [r] occurring word-initially, after /l/, /n/, and /s/, and in compounds; and [ɾ] after hard plosives, the soft spirants [β, ð, ɣ], and /f/. Syllable-final /ɾ/ varies according to dialect, emphasis, morpheme and the following sound. In all Catalan dialects, except most of Valencian, /ɾ/ is lost in coda position in suffixes of nouns and adjectives denoting the masculine singular and in the infinitive suffixes of verbs, except when the following morpheme begins with a vowel (although this may vary).
  7. 7,0 7,1 7,2 7,3 7,4 7,5 7,6 While /ʃ ʒ tʃ dʒ/ are often described simply as "postalveolar" by many sources, phonetic work done by Daniel Recasens shows the postalveolar sibilants to be alveolo-palatal ([ɕ], [ʑ], [] and [], respectively). Nevertheless, since ʃ ʒ tʃ dʒ are overwhelmingly used in the linguistic literature on Catalan and Valencian, those characters are also used on Wikipedia.
  8. Tradicionalment, la /θ/ del castellà es pronunciava /s/. Ara s'imita el so original.
  9. Fora de interjeccions i paraules forasteres, com "la Haia" la lletra h sempre és muda.
  10. Aquest so, inexistent en català, se solia pronunciar /k/ i encara més quan era final, com "Bach", que hom assimilava a la antiga terminació ch, tradicional del català que es pronunciava /k/. Ara, més aviat s'intenta reproduir el sons originals.
  11. Català estàndard and Valencià estàndard have seven stressed vowels /a, ɛ, e, i, ɔ, o, u/ (Balearic dialects can contrast up to eight stressed vowels—those are /a, ɛ, e, i, ɔ, o, u/, plus /ə/). In unstressed position, the seven-way vowel contrast is reduced in all dialects.
    • Eastern Catalan (Alguerese, Balearic, Central and Northern): /e/, /ɛ/, and /a/ reduce to [ə] (though in Alguerese /e/, /ɛ/, and /a/ merge to [a]) while /o/ and /ɔ/ reduce to [u] (however, in most of Majorcan /ɔ/ and /o/ merge to [o]).
    • Western Catalan (North-Western, Tortosan and Valencian): /ɛ/ reduces to [e] and /ɔ/ reduces to [o]. Exceptionally there are some cases where unstressed e and o may reduce to [a] and [u] respectively.
  12. The semivowels [j] and [w] can be combined with most vowels to form diphthongs and triphthongs.

ReferènciesModifica

Català

Valencià

DiccionariModifica