Torneig de Candidats: diferència entre les revisions

27.542 octets eliminats ,  fa 5 anys
elimín text pendent de traduir
(Canvis menors, neteja AWB)
(elimín text pendent de traduir)
{{FR}}
El '''Torneig de Candidats''' és un [[torneig d'escacs]] organitzat per la [[Federació Internacional d'Escacs]] (FIDE) des de [[1950]], com a la competició final per determinar l'aspirant per disputar el [[Campionat del món d'escacs]]. El vencedor del Torneig de Candidats guanya el dret a disputar un matx contra el [[campions d'escacs|Campió del món]] regnant.
 
 
Durant el període 1993 - 2006, en què el cisma dels escacs va provocar que existissin dos campions del món, dins el cicle pel Campionat del món "Clàssic", no organitzat per la FIDE, es van dur a terme tres torneigs de candidats (els anys 1994-1995, 1998 i 2002) cada vegada sota un patrocinador i un format diferents. En un d'aquests casos ([[Aleksei Xírov]] el 1998) no es va arribar a celebrar el matx pel títol, en circumstàncies poc clares (vegeu [[Campionat del món d'escacs de 2000 (clàssic)|Campionat del món clàssic de 2000]]).
 
<!-- Pendent de traduir
== Resultats dels Torneigs de Candidats ==
 
The tables below show the qualifiers and results for all interzonal, Candidates and world championship tournaments. Players shown bracketed in italics (''like this'') qualified for the Candidates or were seeded in the Candidates, but did not play. Players shown in italics with an asterisk (like: ''Stein*'' and ''Bronstein*'') were excluded in 1962 or 1965 from the Candidates by a rule limiting the number of players from one country. Players listed ''after'' players in italics only qualified due to the non-participation of the bracketed players.
 
The "Seeded into Final" column usually refers to the incumbent champion, but this has a different meaning for the [[World Chess Championship 1948]], in which five players were seeded into the championship tournament, the [[Classical World Chess Championship 2000]] in which two players were seeded into the championship final, the [[FIDE World Chess Championship 2005]] in which eight players were seeded into the final championship tournament, and the [[FIDE World Chess Championship 2007]], in which four players were seeded into the final championship tournament.
===1948-1996: Interzonal and Candidates tournaments===
{| border="1" cellpadding="4" cellspacing="0" style="border:1px solid #aaa; border-collapse:collapse"
|- bgcolor="#cccccc"
!width=6%| '''Years'''
!width=14%| '''Interzonal Format'''
!width=17%| '''Interzonal Qualifiers'''
!width=9%| '''Seeded into Candidates'''
!width=18%| '''Candidates Format'''
!width=12%| '''Candidates Winner(s)'''
!width=5%| '''Seeded in Final'''
!width=20%| '''Championship Final'''
|-
| [[World Chess Championship 1948|1948]]
|colspan="5"|None
| [[Mikhail Botvinnik|Botvinnik]],
[[Vasily Smyslov|Smyslov]], [[Paul Keres|Keres]], [[Samuel Reshevsky|Reshevsky]], [[Max Euwe|Euwe]]
| [[The Hague]]/Moscow 1948<br/>5 players,<br/> quintuple round robin,<br/>1. [[Mikhail Botvinnik|Botvinnik]] 14 / 20<br/> 2. Smyslov 11<br/>3.-4. Keres, Reshevsky 10.5
|-
| [[World Chess Championship 1951|1948–51]]
| [[Saltsjöbaden]] 1948<br/>20 players,<br/> single round robin, 8&nbsp;qualified
| 1. [[David Bronstein|Bronstein]], 2. [[László Szabó (chess player)|Szabo]], 3. [[Isaac Boleslavsky|Boleslavsky]], 4. [[Alexander Kotov|Kotov]], 5. [[Andor Lilienthal|Lilienthal]],<br/> 6.-9. [[Miguel Najdorf|Najdorf]], [[Gideon Ståhlberg|Ståhlberg]], (''[[Igor Bondarevsky|Bondarevsky]]''<ref>Bondarevsky was replaced in Candidates tournament because of illness</ref>), [[Salo Flohr|Flohr]]
| Smyslov, [[Paul Keres|Keres]]<br/> (''[[Max Euwe|Euwe]]'', ''[[Reuben Fine|Fine]]'', ''[[Samuel Reshevsky|Reshevsky]]'')
| [[Budapest]] 1950<br/>10 players,<br/> double round robin<br/><br/>1.-2. Boleslavsky, Bronstein<br/>3. Smyslov; 4. Keres
| Bronstein<br/> (won playoff match against [[Isaac Boleslavsky|Boleslavsky]])
| Botvinnik (1948 champion)
| Moscow 1951<br/>24 games match<br/>Drawn 12–12,<br/> Botvinnik retained title
|-
| [[World Chess Championship 1954|1952–54]]
| [[Stockholm]] 1952<br/>21 players,<br/> single round robin, 8&nbsp;qualified
| 1. Kotov, 2.-3. [[Mark Taimanov|Taimanov]], [[Tigran Petrosian|Petrosian]], 4. [[Efim Geller|Geller]],<br/> 5.-8. [[Yuri Averbakh|Averbakh]], Ståhlberg, Szabo, [[Svetozar Gligorić|Gligoric]]
| Bronstein, [[Isaac Boleslavsky|Boleslavsky]], Smyslov, Keres, Reshevsky, [[Miguel Najdorf|Najdorf]],<ref>from previous Candidates</ref> Euwe<ref>from [[World Chess Championship 1948|1948 Championship]]</ref>
| [[Zuric]] 1953<br/>15 players,<br/> double round robin<br/>1. Smyslov<br/>2.-4. Keres, Bronstein, Reshevsky
| Smyslov
| Botvinnik (1951 champion)
| Moscow 1954<br/>24 games match<br/>Drawn 12–12,<br/> Botvinnik retained title
|-
| [[World Chess Championship 1957|1955–57]]
| [[Göteborg]] 1955<br/>21 players,<br/> single round robin, 9&nbsp;qualified
| 1. Bronstein, 2. [[Paul Keres|Keres]], 3. [[Oscar Panno|Panno]], 4. Petrosian, 5.-6. Geller, Szabo, 7-9. [[Miroslav Filip|Filip]], [[Herman Pilnik|Pilnik]], [[Boris Spassky|Spassky]]
| Smyslov
| [[Amsterdam]] 1956<br/>10 players,<br/> double round robin<br/>1. Smyslov<br/>2. Keres
| Smyslov
| Botvinnik (1954 champion)
| Moscow 1957<br/>Smyslov won 12.5–9.5
|-
| [[World Chess Championship 1958|1958]]
|colspan="5"|Rematch
| Botvinnik, Smyslov
| Moscow 1958<br/>Botvinnik won 12.5–10.5
|-
| [[World Chess Championship 1960|1958–60]]
| [[Portorož]] 1958<br/>21 players,<br/> single round robin, 6&nbsp;qualified
| 1. [[Mikhail Tal|Tal]], 2. Gligorić,<br/>3.-4. Petrosian, [[Pal Benko|Benko]],<br/>5.-6. [[Friðrik Ólafsson|Olafsson]], [[Bobby Fischer|Fischer]]
| Smyslov, Keres
| [[Yugoslavia]]<ref>[[Bled]], [[Zagreb]], [[Beograd]]</ref> 1959<br/>8 players,<br/> quadruple round robin<br/>1. Tal; 2. Keres; 3. Petrosian; 4. Smyslov
| Tal
| Botvinnik (1958 champion)
| Moscow 1960<br/>Tal won 12.5–8.5
|-
| [[World Chess Championship 1961|1961]]
|colspan="5"|Rematch
| Botvinnik, Tal
| Moscow 1961<br/>Botvinnik won 13–8
|-
| [[World Chess Championship 1963|1962–63]]
| [[Stockholm]] 1962<br/>23 players,<br/> single round robin, 6&nbsp;qualified
| 1. Fischer,<br/>2.-3. Geller, Petrosian,<br/>4.-5. [[Victor Korchnoi|Korchnoi]], Filip,<br/>6.-8. ''[[Leonid Stein|Stein]]*'', Benko<ref>In the play-off, Stein finished first before Benko, and Gligoric third. Stein was eliminated because only three soviet players could qualify from the interzonal to the candidates tournament.</ref>
| Tal, Keres
| [[Curaçao]] 1962<br/>8 players,<br/> quadruple round robin<br/>1. Petrosian; 2. Keres;<ref>after playoff match against Geller</ref> 3. Geller; 4. Fischer
| [[Tigran Petrosian|Petrosian]]
| Botvinnik (1961 champion)
| Moscow 1963<br/>[[Tigran Petrosian|Petrosian]] won 12.5–9.5
|-
| [[World Chess Championship 1966|1964–66]]
| [[Amsterdam]] 1964<br/>24 players,<br/> single round robin, 6&nbsp;qualified
| 1.-4. Smyslov, [[Bent Larsen|Larsen]], Spassky, Tal,<br/>5. ''Stein''*, 6. ''Bronstein''*, <br/>7. [[Borislav Ivkov|Ivkov]],<br/>8.-9. Portisch<ref>Portisch beat Reshevsky in play-off.</ref>
| Keres, (''[[Mikhail Botvinnik|Botvinnik]]''), [[Efim Geller|Geller]]
| 1965:<br/> 8 players, matches<br/><br/>Semi-finals:<br/>Spassky beat Geller<br/>Tal beat Larsen
| [[Boris Spassky|Spassky]]<br/> beat Tal in the final
| [[Tigran Petrosian|Petrosian]] (1963 champion)
| Moscow 1966<br/>Petrosian won 12.5–11.5
|-
| [[World Chess Championship 1969|1967–69]]
| [[Sousse]] 1967<br/>23 players,<br/> single round robin, 6&nbsp;qualified
| 1. Larsen,<br/>2.-4. Korchnoi, Geller, Gligorić,<br/>5. Portisch,<br/> 6.-8. [[Samuel Reshevsky|Reshevsky]]<ref>Hort and Stein were eliminated having a worse Berger tie-break ([[Neustadtl score]]), the play-off had ended with all players having 4 / 8.</ref>
| [[Boris Spassky|Spassky]], Tal
| 1968:<br/> 8 players, matches<br/>Semi-finals:<br/>Korchnoi beat Tal<br/>Spassky beat Larsen
| Spassky<br/> beat Korchnoi in the final
| Petrosian (1966 champion)
| Moscow 1969<br/>[[Boris Spassky|Spassky]] won 12.5–10.5
|-
| [[World Chess Championship 1972|1970–72]]
| [[Palma de Mallorca]] 1970<br/>24 players,<br/> single round robin, 6&nbsp;qualified
|1. Fischer,<br/>2.-4. Larsen, Geller, [[Robert Hübner|Hübner]], 5.-6. Taimanov, [[Wolfgang Uhlmann|Uhlmann]]
| [[Tigran Petrosian|Petrosian]], [[Viktor Korchnoi|Korchnoi]]
| 1971:<br/> 8 players, matches<br/>Semi-finals:<br/>Petrosian beat Korchnoi<br/>Fischer beat Larsen
| Fischer <br/> beat Petrosian in the final
| [[Boris Spassky|Spassky]] (1969 champion)
| [[Reykjavík]] 1972<br/>Fischer won 12.5–8.5
|-
|rowspan="2"| [[World Chess Championship 1975|1973–75]]
|rowspan="2"| 1973:<br/>Two 18 players, single round robin Interzonals; 3&nbsp;qualified from each
| [[Leningrad]] 1973:<br/>1.-2. Korchnoi, [[Anatoly Karpov|Karpov]],<br/>3. [[Robert Byrne|Byrne]];
|rowspan="2"| Spassky, Petrosian
|rowspan="2"| 1974:<br/> 8 players, matches<br/><br/>Semi-finals :<br/>Korchnoi beat Petrosian<br/>Karpov beat Spassky
|rowspan="2"| Karpov <br/> beat Korchnoi in the final
|rowspan="2"| Fischer (1972 champion)
|rowspan="2"| 1975:<br/> Karpov won on forfeit
|-
|[[Petropolis]] 1973:<br/> 1.[[Henrique Mecking|Mecking]],<br/>2.-4.: Portisch,<br/> [[Lev Polugaevsky|Polugaevsky]]<ref>Geller eliminated after play-off</ref>
|-
|rowspan="2"| [[World Chess Championship 1978|1976–78]]
|rowspan="2"| 1976:<br/>Two 20 players, single round robin Interzonals; 3&nbsp;qualified from each
| [[Biel]] 1976:<br/> 1. Larsen,<br/>2.-4. Petrosian, Portisch<ref>Tal eliminated after play-off</ref>
|rowspan="2"| Korchnoi, (''Fischer''), Spassky
|rowspan="2"| 1977-78:<br/> 8 players, matches<br/><br/>Semi-finals : <br/>Korchnoi beat Polugaevsky<br/>Spassky beat Portisch
|rowspan="2"| Korchnoi <br/> beat Spassky in the final (1977–78)
|rowspan="2"| Karpov (1975 champion)
|rowspan="2"| [[Baguio City]] 1978<br/> Karpov won 6–5<br/>after 32 games<br/> (draws not counting)
|-
|[[Manila]] 1976:<br/>1. Mecking,<br/> 2.-3. Polugaevsky, [[Vlastimil Hort|Hort]]
|-
|rowspan="2"| [[World Chess Championship 1981|1979–81]]
|rowspan="2"| 1979:<br/>Two 18 players, single round robin Interzonals; 3&nbsp;qualified from each
| [[Riga]] 1979:<br/>1.-2. Tal, Polugaevsky,<br/>3.-4. [[András Adorján|Adorján]];<ref>Ribli eliminated after playoff</ref>
|rowspan="2"| Korchnoi, Spassky
|rowspan="2"| 1980:<br/> 8 players, matches<br/><br/>Semi-finals:<br/>Korchnoi beat Polugaevsky<br/>Hübner beat Portisch
|rowspan="2"| Korchnoi <br/> beat Hübner in the final
|rowspan="2"| Karpov (1978 champion)
|rowspan="2"| [[Meran]] 1981<br/> Karpov won 6–2<br/>after 18 games<br/> (draws not counting)
|-
|[[Rio de Janeiro]] 1979:<br/>1.-3. Portisch, Petrosian, Hübner
|-
|rowspan="2"| [[World Chess Championship 1984|1982–85]]
|rowspan="3"| 1982:<br/>Three 14 players, single round robin Interzonals; 2&nbsp;qualified from each
| [[Las Palmas]] 1982:<br/>1. [[Zoltan Ribli|Ribli]], 2. [[Vasily Smyslov|Smyslov]];
|rowspan="3"| Korchnoi, Hübner
|rowspan="3"| 1983-84:<br/> 8 players, matches<br/><br/>Semi-finals:<br/>Kasparov beat Korchnoi<br/>Smyslov beat Ribli
|rowspan="3"| [[Garry Kasparov|Kasparov]] <br/> beat Smyslov in the final (1984)
|rowspan="2"| Karpov (1981 champion)
|rowspan="2"| Moscow 1984-85<br/>Unlimited match abandoned after 48 games with Karpov leading 5–3<br/> (draws not counting)
|-
|Moscow 1982:<br/>1. [[Garry Kasparov|Kasparov]], 2. [[Alexander Beliavsky|Beliavsky]];
|-
| [[World Chess Championship 1985|1985]]
|[[Toluca]] 1982:<br/>1.-2. Portisch, [[Eugene Torre|Torre]]
|replay : Karpov, Kasparov
| Moscow 1985<br/>24 games match<br/>[[Garry Kasparov|Kasparov]] won replay 13–11
|-
| [[World Chess Championship 1986|1986]]
|colspan="5"|Rematch
| Karpov,<br />
Kasparov
| London/[[Leningrad]] 1986<br/> Kasparov won 12.5–11.5
|-
|rowspan="3"| [[World Chess Championship 1987|1985–87]]
|rowspan="3"| 1985:<br/>Three 16–18 players, single round robin Interzonals; 4&nbsp;qualified from each
| [[Biel]] 1985:<br/> 1. [[Rafael Vaganian|Vaganian]], 2. [[Yasser Seirawan|Seirawan]], 3. [[Andrei Sokolov|Sokolov]],<br/>4.-6. [[Nigel Short|Short]];<ref>Van Der Wiel and Torre eliminated after playoff</ref>
|rowspan="2"|Korchnoi, [[Zoltan Ribli|Ribli]], [[Vasily Smyslov|Smyslov]], Spassky<ref name=chosen>chosen by the organizating federation</ref> (seeded in tournament)
|rowspan="2"| [[Montpellier]] 1985:<br/> 16 players,<br/> single round robin tournament, <br/><br/>1.-3. Yusupov, Sokolov, Vaganian,<br/> 4.-5. Timman<ref>Timman eliminated Tal in play-off</ref>
|rowspan="3"|Linares 1987:<br/> Karpov<br/> beat matches winner ([[Andrei Sokolov|Sokolov]]) in the final.
|rowspan="3"| Kasparov (1985 champion)
|rowspan="3"| [[Seville]] 1987<br/>24 games match<br/>Drawn 12–12,<br/> Kasparov retained title
|-
|[[Taxco]] 1985:<br/>1. [[Jan Timman|Timman]], 2. [[Jesus Nogueiras|Nogueiras]],<br/> 3. Tal, 4. [[Kevin Spraggett|Spraggett]];
|-
|[[Tunis]] 1985:<br/>1. [[Artur Yusupov|Yusupov]], 2. Beliavsky, 3. Portisch,<br/> 4.-5. [[Alexander Chernin|Chernin]]<ref>Gavrikov eliminated after playoff</ref>
| Karpov (seeded in 1987 final)
|1986: 4 players played two rounds of matches;<br/> Yusupov beat Timman; Sokolov beat Vaganian and Yusupov.
|-
|rowspan="3"| [[World Chess Championship 1990|1987–90]]
|rowspan="3"| 1987:<br/>Three 17–18 players, single round robin Interzonals; 3&nbsp;qualified from each
| [[Subotica]] 1987:<br/>1.-3. [[Gyula Sax|Sax]], Short, [[Jon Speelman|Speelman]];
|rowspan="2"| [[Andrei Sokolov|Sokolov]], Timman, [[Rafael Vaganian|Vaganian]], Yusupov,<br/> [[Kevin Spraggett|Spraggett]]<ref name=chosen/>
|rowspan="3"| 1988: 14 players played one round of matches,<br/><br/>1989: Karpov joined winners in quarter finals<br/><br/>Semi-finals (1989):<br/>Karpov beat Yusupov<br/>Timman beat Speelman
|rowspan="3"| Karpov <br/>beat Timman in the final (1990)
|rowspan="3"| Kasparov (1987 champion)
|rowspan="3"| [[New York]]/[[Lyon]] 1990<br/>Kasparov won 12.5–11.5
|-
|[[Nógrád County|Szirák]] 1987:<br/>1.-2. [[Valery Salov|Salov]], [[Jóhann Hjartarson|Hjartarson]],<br/>3.-4. Portisch;<ref>Nunn eliminated after Playoff</ref>
|-
|[[Zagreb]] 1987:<br/>1. Korchnoi,<br/> 2.-3. Seirawan, [[Jaan Ehlvest|Ehlvest]]
|Karpov (seeded in second round)
|-
|rowspan="2"| [[World Chess Championship 1993|1990–93]]
|rowspan="2"| [[Manila]] 1990<br/>64 players [[Swiss system tournament|Swiss]], 11&nbsp;qualified
|rowspan="2"|1.-2. [[Boris Gelfand|Gelfand]], [[Vassily Ivanchuk|Ivanchuk]],<br/>3.-4. [[Viswanathan Anand|Anand]], Short,<br/> 5.-11. Sax, Korchnoi, Hübner, [[Predrag Nikolić|Nikolić]], [[Leonid Yudasin|Yudasin]], [[Sergey Dolmatov|Dolmatov]], [[Alexey Dreev|Dreev]]
| Timman, Yusupov, [[Jon Speelman|Speelman]]
|rowspan="2"| 1991: 14 players, played one round of matches,<br/><br/>1991: Karpov joined winners in quarter-finals<br/>1992: Semi-finals<br/>Short beat Karpov<br/>Timman beat Yusupov
|rowspan="2"| Short <br/>beat Timman in the final (1993)
|rowspan="2"| Kasparov (1990 champion)
| London<br/> September-October 1993:<br/> Kasparov defeated Short 13–8 under the auspices of the [[Professional Chess Association|PCA]];
|-
|Karpov (seeded in second round)
|Netherlands<ref>[[Zwolle]] (games 1-3) / [[Arnhem]] (games 4-6) / [[Amsterdam]] (games 7-12)</ref>/[[Djakarta]]<ref>(games 13-21)</ref> September-November 1993: <br/> Karpov defeated Timman 12.5–8.5 under the auspices of [[FIDE]]
|-
| [[Classical World Chess Championship 1995|1993–95]] ([[Professional Chess Association|PCA]])
| [[Groningen (city)|Groningen]] desembre 1993<br/>54 players Swiss, 7&nbsp;qualified
| 1.-2. [[Michael Adams|Adams]], Anand,<br/>3.-7. [[Gata Kamsky|Kamsky]], [[Vladimir Kramnik|Kramnik]], [[Sergei Tiviakov|Tiviakov]], [[Boris Gulko|Gulko]], [[Oleg Romanishin|Romanishin]]
| Short
| 1994-95:<br/> 8 players, matches<br/>Semi-finals :<br/>Kamsky beat Short<br/>Anand beat Adams
| Anand<br/> beat Kamsky in the final (1995)
| Kasparov (1993 PCA champion)
| [[New York]]<br/> September-October 1995<br/>20 games match<br/> Kasparov won 10.5–7.5
|-
|rowspan="2"| [[FIDE World Chess Championship 1996|1993–96 (FIDE)]]
|rowspan="2"| [[Biel]] juliol 1993<br/>73 players Swiss, 10&nbsp;qualified
|rowspan="2"| 1. Gelfand,<br/> 2.-9. [[Paul Van der Sterren|Van der Sterren]], Kamsky, [[Alexander Khalifman|Khalifman]], Adams, Yudasin, Salov, [[Joël Lautier|Lautier]], Kramnik,<br/>10.-15. Anand<ref>Epichine, Lputian, Shirov, Ivanchuk and I. Sokolov were eliminated by the tie-break (sum of the opponents Elo ratings).</ref>
|Timman, Yusupov
| 1994: 12 players played two rounds of matches.
|rowspan="2" colspan="2"|Semi-finals (February 1995):<br/> Karpov beat Gelfand,<br/> Kamsky beat Salov
|rowspan="2"| [[Elista]] 1996<br/>20 games match<br/> Karpov won 10.5–7.5
|-
| Karpov (seeded in the semi-finals)
| 1995: Karpov joined winners (Gelfand, Kamsky, Salov) in the semi-finals.
|}
 
===1997-present===
After 1996, interzonals ceased to exist, but FIDE continued to organize qualifying zonal tournaments.
{| border="1" cellpadding="4" cellspacing="0" style="border:1px solid #aaa; border-collapse:collapse"
|- bgcolor="#DDDDDD"
!colspan="8" align="center"| Classical championships (1998–2004)
|- bgcolor="#cccccc"
! Years
! Candidates format
!colspan="3" align="center"| Seeded into Candidates
!Candidates Winner(s)
!Seeded in Final
!Championship Final
|-
| [[Classical World Chess Championship 2000|1998 (Classical)]]
| [[Cazorla]], May-June 1998<br />10-game match
|colspan="3"| Kramnik, [[Alexei Shirov|Shirov]] <br/>(on rating)<ref>''Anand'', as a participant in the FIDE world championship cycle, believed he was contractually obligated to not participate in a rival cycle.</ref>
| Shirov won 5.5–3.5
| [[Garry Kasparov|Kasparov]]<br/> (1995 champion)
| match never took place
|-
| [[Classical World Chess Championship 2000|2000 (Classical)]]
|colspan="4"|None
|colspan="2"|Two players seeded in final:<br/><br/>Kasparov (1995 champion)<br/> Kramnik (on rating)<ref>Negotiations for a 1999 match with ''Shirov'' or ''Anand'' failed, as did negotiations in 2000, with Anand expressing dissatisfaction with the contract.</ref>
| London: October-<br/>November 2000<br/>16-game match<br/>Kramnik won 8.5–6.5
|-
| [[Classical World Chess Championship 2004|2002–2004 (Classical)]]
| [[Dortmund Sparkassen Chess Meeting|Dortmund]] juliol 2002<br/>preliminaries: two four players double round robins;<br/>Semi-finals: the first from each group met the second from the other group in mini-matches
|colspan="3"|Preliminaries:<ref>''Kasparov'', ''Anand'' and other players engaged in the FIDE championship declined the invitation</ref><br/>group 1: 1. Shirov, 2.[[Veselin Topalov|Topalov]], 3.[[Boris Gelfand|Gelfand]], 4.[[Christopher Lutz|Lutz]]<br/>group 2: 1.[[Evgeny Bareev|Bareev]], 2.[[Peter Leko|Leko]], 3.Adams, 4.[[Alexander Morozevich|Morozevich]]<br/><br/>Semi-finals :<br/> Leko beat Shirov and Topalov beat Bareev.
|Leko<br/>(beat Topalov in the final)
| Kramnik<br/> (2000 classical champion)
| [[Brissago]]:<br/> September-October 2004<br/>14-game match<br/>drawn 7–7,<br/> Kramnik retained title
|- bgcolor="#DDDDDD"
!colspan="8" align="center"| FIDE championships (1997–2005)
|- bgcolor="#cccccc"
! Years
! Candidates format
!colspan="3" align="center"| Seeded into Candidates
!colspan=2|Finalists
!Championship Final
|-
| [[FIDE World Chess Championship 1998|1997–1998 (FIDE)]]
|[[Groningen (city)|Groningen]]<br/> desembre 1997,<br/> 7 round, mini-match, knockout tournament
|colspan="3"|100 players,<ref>Top seed ''[[Vladimir Kramnik|Kramnik]]'' refused to participate on the grounds that 1996 FIDE champion Karpov's direct entry into the final was unacceptable;<br/> 1995 classical champion ''[[Garry Kasparov|Kasparov]]'', 1996 finalist ''[[Gata Kamsky|Kamsky]]'' and 1996 Women champion ''[[Susan Polgar|Z. Polgar]]'' refused in advance to participate.</ref><br/>Quarter-finalists:<br/> Adams, Van Wely, Short, Krasenkov, Gelfand, Dreev, Anand and Shirov.<ref>Topalov, Ivanchuk, Beliavsky, Salov, Bareev, Georgiev, J. Polgar, Sadler, Akopian, Lautier were eliminated</ref>
|colspan=2| [[Viswanathan Anand|Anand]] (beat [[Michael Adams|Adams]] in candidates final)<br/> [[Anatoly Karpov|Karpov]] (1996 FIDE champion)
| [[Lausanne]]:<br/> gener 1998<br/>6-game match<br/>Drawn 3–3;<br/> [[Anatoly Karpov|Karpov]] won rapid playoff 2–0
|-
| [[FIDE World Chess Championship 1999|1999 (FIDE)]]
|[[Las Vegas, Nevada|Las Vegas]]<br/> July-August 1999,<br/> 7 round, mini-match, knockout tournament
|colspan="3"|100 players,<ref>1998 FIDE champion ''Karpov'', 1998 FIDE finalist ''Anand'' (Anand was negotiating to play a match against Kasparov for his title) and 1995 classical champion ''Kasparov'' refused to participate</ref><br/>Quarter-finalists: <br/>Kramnik, Adams, Movsesian, Akopian, Shirov, [[Liviu-Dieter Nisipeanu|Nisipeanu]], Khalifman, J. Polgar<ref>1998 classical championship candidates Shirov and Kramnik were eliminated by Nispeanu and Adams in quarterfinals.</ref>
|colspan="2"|Semi-finals:<br/> [[Alexander Khalifman|Khalifman]] beat [[Liviu-Dieter Nisipeanu|Nispeanu]],<br/> [[Vladimir Akopian|Akopian]] beat Adams
| [[Las Vegas, Nevada|Las Vegas]] 1999<br/>6-game match<br/>Khalifman won 3.5–2.5
|-
| [[FIDE World Chess Championship 2000|2000 (FIDE)]]
|[[New Delhi]] (6 rounds)/final in [[Tehran]]<br/> November-December 2000</br> 7 round, mini-match, knockout tournament with final match played in Tehran
|colspan="3"|100 players,<ref>Classical champions ''Kasparov'', ''Kramnik'' and 1998 FIDE champion ''Karpov'' didn't participate</ref><br/>Quarter-finalists:<br/>Anand, Khalifman, Adams, Topalov, Tkachiev, Grischuk, Shirov and Bareev<ref>Morozevich, Leko, Krasenkov, Kasimdzhanov, Svidler, Gelfand, Short, Smirin, Dreev, Azmaiparashvili, Rublevsky, Almasi, Xu Jun, Gurevich were eliminated</ref>
|colspan="2"|Semi-finals:<br/>Anand beat Adams,<br/> Shirov beat [[Alexander Grischuk|Grischuk]]
| [[Tehran]]<br/> desembre 2000<br/>6-game match</br>Anand won 3.5–0.5
|-
| [[FIDE World Chess Championship 2002|2001–2002 (FIDE)]]
|Moscow<br/> November-December 2001<br/>7 round, mini-match, knockout tournament with relatively quick time controls
|colspan="3"| 128 players,<ref>Classical champions ''Kramnik'' and ''Kasparov'' didn't participate. All other strongest players of the world took part, including former winners of the FIDE World Championship Anand, Khalifman (eliminated in third round) and Karpov (eliminated in first round).</ref><br/>Quarter-finalists:<br/>Anand, Shirov, Ivanchuk, Lautier, Svidler, Gelfand, Ponomariov and Bareev
|colspan="2"|Semi-finals:<br/> [[Ruslan Ponomariov|Ponomariov]] beat [[Peter Svidler|Svidler]],<br/> [[Vassily Ivanchuk|Ivanchuk]] beat Anand
| Moscow<br/> gener 2002<br/>8-game match<br/>Ponomariov won 4.5–2.5<ref name="reunification">Reunification Match with Kasparov never took place</ref>
|-
|[[FIDE World Chess Championship, 2004|2004 (FIDE)]]
|[[Tripoli]]<br/> June-July 2004<br/>7 round, mini-match, knockout tournament with relatively quick time controls
|colspan="3"| 128 players,<ref>''Kasparov, Anand, Kramnik, Svidler, Shirov, Ponomariov, [[Peter Leko|Leko]], [[Judit Polgár|J. Polgár]], [[Boris Gelfand|Gelfand]], [[Evgeny Bareev|Bareev]], Karpov'' and Israeli players refused to participate, [[Alexander Morozevich|Morozevich]] was absent before the first round</ref><br/>Quarter-finalists:<br/>Topalov, Kharlov, Kasimdzhanov, Grischuk, [[Teimour Radjabov|Radjabov]], Dominguez, Adams, Akopian<ref>Ivanchuk, Short, Malakhov, Nisipeanu, Sokolov, Dreev, Akopian, Bacrot, Gurevich, Rublevsky, were eliminated</ref>
|colspan="2"|Semi-finals:<br/> Adams beat Radjabov,<br/> [[Rustam Kasimdzhanov|Kasimdzhanov]] beat [[Veselin Topalov|Topalov]]
| [[Tripoli]] juliol 2004<br/>6-game match<br/>drawn 3–3;<br/> Kasimdzhanov won rapid playoff 1.5–0.5<ref name="reunification"/>
|-
|[[FIDE World Chess Championship, 2005|2005 (FIDE)]]
|colspan="3"|None
|colspan="3"|8 players seeded in final:<br/> <br/> Kasimdzhanov (FIDE champion),<br/> Adams (as FIDE 2004 finalist);<br/>Anand, Morozevich, Topalov (on rating),<br/> Leko (as classical 2004 finalist),<ref>''Kramnik'' (as classical 2004 finalist) declined the invitation, and ''Kasparov'', who had retired from competition, were replaced by J. Polgar and Svidler on rating</ref><br/> [[Judit Polgár|J. Polgár]] and Svidler (on rating)
|[[San Luis, Argentina|San Luis]]: 8 players,<br/>double round robin,<br/>September-October 2005<br/>1. Topalov : 10/14<br/>2.-3. Anand and Svidler : 8,5/14<br/>4.Morozevich: 7/14
|- bgcolor="#DDDDDD"
!colspan="8" align="center"| '''Reunification'''
|-
|[[World Chess Championship 2006|2006]]
|colspan="3"|Reunification match
|colspan="3"|Topalov (FIDE champion),<br/> Kramnik (classical champion)
|[[Elista]] octubre 2006<br/>12-game match<br/>drawn 6–6,<br/> Kramnik won rapid playoff 2.5–1.5
|- bgcolor="#cccccc"
! '''Years'''
!width=22%| '''Qualification format'''
!width=11%| '''Qualifiers'''
!width=12%| '''Seeded into Candidates'''
!width=12%| '''Candidates Format'''
!width=11%| '''Candidates Winner(s)'''
!width=11%| '''Seeded in Final'''
!width=17%| '''Championship Final'''
|-
|[[World Chess Championship 2007|2005-2007]]
| [[Chess World Cup 2005]]<br/> Khanty-Mansiysk<br/>November-December 2005<br/> 128 players, 7 round, mini-match, knockout tournament;<br/> + mini-matches to establish places 1 through 16.<br/> top 10 qualify
| 1.Ponomariov, 2.[[Levon Aronian|Aronian]], (3.[[Étienne Bacrot|Bacrot]],<ref>Bacrot was qualified on rating</ref>)<br/> 4.[[Alexander Grischuk|Grischuk]], 5.Bareev, 6.Gelfand, 7.[[Sergei Rublevsky|Rublevsky]], 8.[[Mikhail Gurevich (chess player)|Gurevich]], 9.[[Gata Kamsky|Kamsky]], 10.[[Magnus Carlsen|Carlsen]], 11.[[Vladimir Malakhov (chess player)|Malakhov]]
| Kasimdzhanov, Leko, Adams,<br/> [[Judith Polgar|J. Polgar]]<br/> (5th-8th of 2005 championship),<br/><br/> Shirov, Bacrot<br/> (on rating)
| [[Elista]]:<br/> May-June 2007<br/>16 players,<br/> two rounds of matches,<br/><br/> 4 players qualify for championship tournament
| Aronian,<br/> Gelfand,<br/> Grischuk,<br/> Leko<ref>Aronian beat A.Shirov; Leko beat Bareev; Grischuk beat Rublevsky; Gelfand beat Kamsky</ref>
| Anand, Svidler, Morozevich (2nd–4th in 2005);<br/><br/>Kramnik<ref>''Topalov'' was replaced by Kramnik (2006 Champion)</ref> (2006 Champion)
| [[Mexico City]]:<br/> setembre 2007<br/>8 players,<br/> double round robin <br/>1. Anand 9/14<br/>2.-3. Kramnik and Gelfand: 8/14
|-
|[[World Chess Championship 2008|2008]]
|colspan="5"|Rematch
| Kramnik, Anand
| [[Bonn]] octubre 2008<br/>12-game match<br/>Anand won 6.5-4.5 to retain the title.
|-
|[[World Chess Championship 2010|2007-2010]]
| [[Chess World Cup 2007]]<br/> Khanty-Mansiysk<br/> November-December 2007<br/> 128 players, 7 round, mini-match, knockout tournament
| Kamsky <br/>beat A. Shirov 2.5-1.5 in the final.
| Topalov<br />(2005 FIDE champion)
| [[Sofia]]<br/> febrer 2009, <br />8-game match
| Topalov won 4.5-2.5
| Anand<br/> (2008 champion)
| [[Sofia]] April-May 2010<br/>12-game match<br/>Anand won 6.5-5.5 to retain the title.
|-
|rowspan="2"|[[World Chess Championship 2012|2008-2012]]
|[[FIDE Grand Prix 2008–2010]]<br/>2 qualified<ref name="Grischuk">Grischuk, third of FIDE Grand Prix, replaced Carlsen after he withdrew.</ref>
|Aronian, [[Teimour Radjabov|Radjabov]]<br/>(Grischuk)<ref name="Grischuk"/>
|rowspan="2"|(''Carlsen'') Grischuk,<ref name="Grischuk"/> Kramnik<br/> (on rating),<br/><br/>Kamsky,<ref>2009 candidate, loser of the [[World Chess Championship 2010#Challenger Match|2009 Challenger Match]]</ref><br/> Topalov,<ref>2010 finalist, loser of 2010 World Chess Championship match</ref><br/> [[Shakhriyar Mamedyarov|Mamedyarov]]<ref>nominee of tournament organizers</ref><ref>[http://www.chessbase.com/newsdetail.asp?newsid=6543 FIDE to move Candidates Matches, Topalov threatens boycott]</ref>
|rowspan="2"|[[Kazan]]<br/> abril 2011,<ref>[http://www.chessintranslation.com/2010/08/kamsky-on-the-candidates-matches/ Kamsky on the Candidates Matches]</ref> <br/>8 players,<br/> matches
|rowspan="2"|
|rowspan="2"|Anand<br/> (2010 champion)
|rowspan="2"|
|-
| [[Chess World Cup 2009]]<br/> Khanty-Mansiysk<br/> November-December 2009<br/> 128 players, 7 round, mini-match, knockout tournament (1st qualifies)
|Gelfand (beat Ponomariov in the final)
|}
-->
== Notes i referències ==
{{Referències|2}}
 
== Enllaços externs ==
* [http://www.mark-weeks.com/chess/wcc-indy.htm Torneigs de la FIDE pels campionats del món 1948-1990], ''Mark Weeks chess pages'' {{en}}
* [http://www.mark-weeks.com/chess/wcc-indx.htm Torneigs pels campionats del món 1991-actualitat], ''Mark Weeks chess pages'' {{en}}
 
{{esborrany d'escacs}}
 
<!--ORDENA generat per bot-->
 
{{ORDENA:Torneig De Candidats}}
855.823

modificacions