Diferència entre revisions de la pàgina «República d'Irlanda»

 
== Política i govern ==
{{AP|Política de la República d'Irlanda}}
 
=== Estructura constitucional ===
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[[Fitxer:Michael D. Higgins 2006b.png|155px|miniatura|[[Michael D. Higgins]], [[President d'Irlanda]]]]
Ireland is a constitutional republic with a [[parliamentary system]] of government. The ''{{lang|ga|[[Oireachtas]]}}'' is the [[bicameral]] national parliament composed of the [[President of Ireland]] and the two Houses of the Oireachtas:
Irlanda és una [[república]] amb un [[sistema parlamentari]] de govern. El [[President d'Irlanda]] n'és el [[cap d'estat]], elegit per un període de set anys amb la possibilitat d'una sola reelecció. El president és una figura cerimonial encara que conserva alguns poders constitucionals i funcions que pot utilitzar amb el suport del Consell d'Estat. El [[taoiseach]] ([[primer ministre]]) és nomenat pel parlament i designat pel president. El taoiseach és el líder del [[partit polític]] o coalició que hagi obtingut la majoria dels escons en les eleccions nacionals.
''{{lang|ga|[[Seanad Éireann]]}}'' (Senate) and ''{{lang|ga|[[Dáil Éireann]]}}'' (House of Representatives).<ref>Article 15.2 of the Constitution of Ireland.</ref> [[Áras an Uachtaráin]] is the [[official residence]] of the President of Ireland, while the houses of the Oireachtas meet at [[Leinster House]] in [[Dublin]].
 
[[File:President Higgins's visit FINIRISH BATT HQ, Lebanon (cropped).jpg|thumb|upright|left|President [[Michael D. Higgins]]]]
The President serves as [[head of state]], and is elected for a seven-year term and may be re-elected once. The President is primarily a [[figurehead (metaphor)|figurehead]], but is entrusted with certain constitutional powers with the advice of the [[Council of State (Ireland)|Council of State]]. The office has absolute discretion in some areas, such as referring a bill to the Supreme Court for a judgment on its constitutionality.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.president.ie/en/the-president/constitutional-role |title=Office of the President – Powers and Functions |accessdate=4 January 2011}}</ref> [[Michael D. Higgins]] became the ninth President of Ireland on 11 November 2011.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.independent.ie/irish-news/president-michael-d-promises-seven-years-of-new-ideas-26791169.html |title=President Michael D promises seven years of new ideas |accessdate=11 November 2011 | work=Irish Independent |date=11 November 2011}}</ref>
 
The ''{{lang|ga|[[Taoiseach]]}}'' (Prime Minister) serves as the [[head of government]] and is appointed by the President upon the nomination of the {{lang|ga|Dáil}}. Most ''{{lang|ga|Taoisigh}}'' have served as the leader of the political party that gains the most seats in national elections. It has become customary for [[Coalition government|coalitions]] to form a government, as there has not been a single-party government since 1989.<ref>{{cite book|last=McGrath|first=Conor|author2=Eoin O'Malley|title=Irish political studies reader: key contributions|editor=Conor McGrath, Eoin O'Malley|publisher=Routledge|year=2007|page=54|isbn= 978-0-415-44648-8|url=https://books.google.com/?id=H_fcNWfZ7hIC&pg=PA54&dq=%22in+1989+Haughey+called+a+snap+general+election+in+the+hope+of+gaining+an+overall+majority%22#v=onepage&q=%22in%201989%20Haughey%20called%20a%20snap%20general%20election%20in%20the%20hope%20of%20gaining%20an%20overall%20majority%22&f=false|accessdate=15 March 2011}}</ref> [[Leo Varadkar]] succeeded [[Enda Kenny]] as Taoiseach on 14 June 2017.
 
[[File:Leo_Varadkar_2011.jpg|thumb|upright|Taoiseach [[Leo Varadkar]]]]
The {{lang|ga|Seanad}} is composed of sixty members, with eleven nominated by the {{lang|ga|Taoiseach}}, six elected by two universities, and 43 elected by public representatives from panels of candidates established on a vocational basis. The {{lang|ga|Dáil}} has 158 members (''{{lang|ga|[[Teachta Dála|Teachtaí Dála]]}}'') elected to represent multi-seat [[Dáil constituencies|constituencies]] under the system of [[proportional representation]] and by means of the [[single transferable vote]].
 
The [[Government of Ireland|Government]] is constitutionally limited to fifteen members. No more than two members can be selected from the {{lang|ga|Seanad}}, and the {{lang|ga|Taoiseach}}, ''{{lang|ga|[[Tánaiste]]}}'' (Deputy Prime Minister) and [[Minister for Finance (Ireland)|Minister for Finance]] must be members of the {{lang|ga|Dáil}}. The Dáil must be dissolved within five years after its first meeting following the previous election,<ref>{{cite irish legislation |year=1992 |type=pub |number=23 |section=33 |name=Electoral Act, 1992}}</ref> and a general election for members of the Dáil must take place no later than thirty days after the dissolution. According to the [[Constitution of Ireland]], parliamentary elections must be held at least every seven years, though a lower limit may be set by statute law. The current government is a Fine Gael led minority government led by [[Leo Varadkar]] as [[Taoiseach]] and [[Simon Coveney]] as [[Tánaiste]]. It is supported by a number of independents including [[Shane Ross]] and former Senator [[Katherine Zappone]]. The minority government is held in place by a [[confidence and supply]] deal with Fianna Fáil. Opposition parties in the current {{lang|ga|Dáil}} are [[Fianna Fáil]], [[Sinn Féin]], the [[Labour Party (Ireland)|Labour Party]], [[Solidarity–People Before Profit]], [[Social Democrats (Ireland)|Social Democrats]], [[Workers and Unemployed Action]], the [[Green Party (Ireland)|Green Party]] as well as a number of [[Independent politician|independents]].
El parlament, conegut com a ''[[Oireachtas]]'', és bicameral, conformat pel Senat, ''[[Seanad Éireann]]'', i una cambra baixa, la ''[[Dáil Éireann]]''. El Senat està integrat per seixanta membres; onze anomenats pel ''taoiseach'', sis elegits per dues universitats i 43 elegits per representants públics dels panells dels candidats establerts segons la seva vocació. El ''Dáil'' té 166 membres, coneguts com a ''Teachtaí Dála'', elegits per representar les circumscripcions electorals d'acord al sistema de [[representació proporcional]] per mitjà del vot únic transferible (vegeu: [[sistemes electorals]]). Sota la constitució, les eleccions parlamentàries s'han de realitzar, com a mínim, cada set anys, encara que es pot establir un límit menor per llei estatutària. La duració estatutària actual és de cinc anys.
 
Ireland has been a [[member state of the European Union]] since 1973, but has chosen to remain outside the [[Schengen Area]]. Citizens of the United Kingdom can freely enter the country without a passport due to the [[Common Travel Area]], which is a passport-free zone comprising the islands of Ireland, Great Britain, the [[Isle of Man]] and the [[Channel Islands]]. However, some identification is required at airports and seaports.
L'exercici executiu del govern és limitat constitucionalment a quinze membres. No més de dos membres poden ser seleccionats del Senat; el ''taoiseach'', el ''tánaiste'' (primer ministre diputat) i el Ministre de Finances han de ser membres del ''Dáil''. El govern actual està conformat per una coalició de dos partits; [[Fine Gael]] sota el taoiseach [[Enda Kenny]], i el [[Partit Laborista (Irlanda)|Partit Laborista]] sota la ''tánaiste'' Eamon Gilmore. L'oposició principal està conformada pels partits [[Fianna Fáil]] i [[Sinn Féin]]. Existeixen altres partits polítics com ara el Partit Verd i el Partit Socialista.
 
=== Subdivisió administrativa ===
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