Diferència entre revisions de la pàgina «John Charles Frémont»

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{{Infotaula persona}}
'''John Charles Frémont''' o '''Fremont''' ( 1813-1890) va ser un explorador i polític estatunidenc. Durant la dècada de 1840 va dirigir quatre expedicions a l'oest nord-americà.<ref>Allan Nevins, ''Frémont, the West's Greatest Adventurer: Being a Biography from Certain Hitherto Unpublished Sources of General John C. Frémont, Together with His Wife, Jessie Benton Frémont, and Some Account of the Period of Expansion which Found a Brilliant Leader in the Pathfinder'' (1928)</ref>
 
==Epònims de plantes==
 
Ciutats i poblacions:
* [[Fremont, California(Califòrnia)]]
* [[Fremont, Indiana]]
* [[Fremont, Michigan]]
{{refbegin}}
* {{ref-llibre|cognom1=Bancroft|nom1=Hubert H. |enllaçautor=Hubert Howe Bancroft |títol=History of California|url=https://archive.org/stream/histofcaliforn05bancroft#page/n11/mode/2up|data=1886|editorial=The History Company|volum=5|lloc=San Francisco|ref=harv}}
* {{ref-llibre|cognom=Brands |nom=H. W. |enllaçautor=H.W. Brands|títol=The Man Who Saved the Union: Ulysses S. Grant in War and Peace |editorial=Doubleday |lloc=NewNova York |any=2012 |isbn=0-385-53241-5 |url=https://books.google.com/?id=T2ERAmB4lbYC |ref=harv}}
* {{ref-llibre|nom=Richard|cognom=Carwardine|títol=Lincoln|editorial=Pearson Education Ltd|any=2003|isbn=978-0-582-03279-8|ref=harv}}
* {{ref-llibre|ref=Catton |cognom=Catton |nom=Bruce |títol=Terrible Swift Sword |url=https://archive.org/details/terribleswiftswo012780mbp|editorial=Double Day & Company Inc. |lloc=[[Garden City, NewNova York]] |any=1963}}
* {{cite article |last = Denton |first = Sally |title = Frémont Steals California |magazine = [[American Heritage (magazine)|American Heritage]] |date = Winter 2011 |url =http://www.americanheritage.com/content/fremont-steals-california |ref=harv}}
* {{ref-llibre|cognom=Frémont |nom=John C. |títol=The Expeditions of John Charles Frémont The Bear Flag Revolt and the Court-Martial |editorial=University of Illinois Press |lloc=Urbana|editor1=Mary Lee Spence |editor2=Donald Jackson |data=1973 |ref=harv |isbn=0-252-00249-0}}
*{{ref-llibre|títol= Memoirs of My Life, By John Charles Frémont |url=https://archive.org/stream/cihm_14127#page/n7/mode/2up |cognom1= Frémont |nom1= John Charles |any= 1887 |editorial= Belford, Clark |lloc= Chicago |ref=harv}}
* {{ref-llibre|cognom=Hall |nom=Henry |data=1895 |títol=America's Successful Men of Affairs |volum=I |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=X5wMAQAAMAAJ&pg=PA494 |lloc=NewNova York, NY |editorial=New York Tribune |ref={{sfnRef|''America's Successful Men of Affairs''}}}}
* {{ref-llibre|cognom=Heidenreich |nom=Linda |títol=This Land Was Mexican Once: Histories of Resistance from Northern California |editorial=University of Texas Press |lloc=Austin |data=2007 |isbn=978-0-292-71633-9| ref=harv}}
* {{ref-llibre|cognom=McFeely |nom=William S. |enllaçautor=William S. McFeely |títol=Grant: A Biography |editorial= Norton |any=1981 |isbn= 0-393-01372-3 |url=https://books.google.com/?id=GdpmKTM5zTwC |ref=harv }}
* {{ref-web|cognom=McNamara |nom=John |títol=John C. Frémont Called "The Pathfinder," His Expeditions and Writings Inspired Americans |url=https://www.thoughtco.com/john-c-fremont-biography-1773598 |editor=ThoughtCo. |data= 31 maig 2016 |ref=harv}}
* {{ref-llibre|cognom=Nevins |nom=Allan |enllaçautor=Allan Nevins |ref=harv |títol=Dictionary of American Biography Frémont, John Charles |url=https://archive.org/stream/dictionaryofamer07ilamer#page/19/mode/1up |editor=Allen Johnson |editor2=Dumas Malone |editorial=Charles Scribner's Sons |lloc=Nova York|volum=7 |pàgines=19–23|any=1931}}
* {{ref-llibre|cognom=Nevins |nom=Allan |authormask=2 |ref=harv |títol=Frémont, Pathmarker of the West |url=https://archive.org/details/frmontpathmarker01nevi |editorial=Frederick Ungar Publishing Co. |lloc=NewNova York |data=1939a |volum=1}}
* {{ref-llibre|cognom=Nevins |nom=Allan |authormask=2 |ref=harv |títol=Frémont, Pathmarker of the West |url=https://archive.org/details/frmontpathmarker02nevi |editorial=Frederick Ungar Publishing Co. |lloc=NewNova York |data=1939b |volum=2}}
*{{ref-llibre|cognom=Oates |nom=Stephen B. |editor=[[C. Vann Woodward|Woodward C. Vann]] |títol=Responses of the Presidents to Charges of Misconduct |editorial=Delacorte Press |lloc=New York, NewNova York |pàgines=111–113 |any=1974 |isbn=0-440-05923-2 |ref=harv}}
* {{ref-llibre|cognom1=Polk |nom1=James K. |enllaçautor=James K. Polk |cognom2=Quaife |nom2=Milo M., Editor & Annotator|títol=The Diary of James K. Polk During His Presidency, 1845 to 1849, Volume 1|data=1910|lloc=Chicago}}
* {{ref-llibre|cognom=Richards |nom=Leonard L. |títol=The California Gold Rush and the Coming of the Civil War |editorial=Vintage Books Random House Inc. |lloc=[[New York City|New York]], [[New York State|NewNova York]] |data=2007 |isbn=978-0-307-27757-2 |ref=harv}}
* {{ref-publicació|cognom=Rogers|nom=Fred B.|títol=Bear Flag Lieutenant: The Life Story of Henry L. Ford (1822–1860), with Some Related and Contemporary Art of Alexander Edouart|publicació=California Historical Society Quarterly|editorial=University of California Press in association with the California Historical Society|volum=29|number=3|data= setembre 1950|pàgines=261–278|url=https://www.jstor.org/stable/25156252
|ref=harv}}
|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=rwY1AAAAIAAJ|any=1853|editorial=[[James Cephas Derby|Derby Orton & Mulligan]] |lloc=Buffalo|ref=EERM1853}}
* {{ref-llibre|títol=The Life of Col. John Charles Fremont and His Narrative of Explorations and Adventures in Kansas, Nebraska, Oregon and California |cognom1=Frémont |nom1=John Charles |cognom2=Smucker |nom2=Samuel Mosheim
|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=eQMFAAAAYAAJ|any=1856 |editorial=Miller, Orton & Mulligan|lloc=NewNova York andi [[Auburn, NewNova York|Auburn]]
|ref=LifeJCF}}
* {{ref-llibre|cognom=Smith |nom=Jean Edward |enllaçautor=Jean Edward Smith|títol=Grant |editorial=Simon & Schuster |lloc=Nova York|any=2001 |isbn=0-684-84927-5 |url=https://books.google.com/?id=TssAXSdPTi4C |ref=harv}}
* Bicknell, John. ''Lincoln’s Pathfinder'' (2017), popular history of 1856 election from Frémont's perspective. 355 pages
* [[William Brandon (author)|Brandon, William]], ''The Men and the Mountain'' (1955) {{ISBN|0-8371-5873-7}}. An account of Frémont's failed fourth expedition.
* Chaffin, Tom, ''Pathfinder: John Charles Frémont and the Course of American Empire'', NewNova York: Hill and Wang, 2002 {{ISBN|978-0-8090-7557-7}}
* Denton, Sally, ''Passion and Principle, John and Jessie Fremont, The Couple whose Power, Politics, and Love Shaped Nineteenth-Century America'', NewNova York: Bloomsbury, 2007 978-1-59691-019-5
* Eyre, Alice, ''The Famous Fremonts and Their America'', Boston: The Christopher Publishing House, 1948; Library of Congress Card Catalog Number 61-13063
* Gano, Geneva M. "At the Frontier of Precision and Persuasion: The Convergence of Natural Philosophy and National Philosophy in John C. Fremont's '1842, 1843–44 Report and Map,'" ''ATQ'' ("The American Transcendental Quarterly"), September 2004, Vol. 18#3 pp 131–154
* Menard, Andrew. ''Sight Unseen: How Frémont's First Expedition Changed the American Landscape'' (University of Nebraska Press, 2012) 249 pp.
* Miller, David. "Heroes' of American Empire: John C. Frémont, Kit Carson, and the Culture of Imperialism, 1842–1898," ''Dissertation Abstracts International'', 2008, Vol. 68 Issue 10, p4447
* Roberts, David (2001), ''A newer world: Kit Carson, John C. Fremont and the claiming of the American west'', NewNova York: Touchstone {{ISBN|0-684-83482-0}}
* Rolle, Andrew F. (1991). ''John Charles Fremont: Character As Destiny''. University of Oklahoma Press. {{ISBN|0806131357}}
* Tompkins, Walker A. ''Santa Barbara, Past and Present''. Tecolote Books, Santa Barbara, CA, 1975.
 
===Fonts principals===
* First biography: {{ref-llibre|títol=Fremont and '49 |cognom=Dellenbaugh |nom=Frederick S |enllaçautor= |any=1914 |editorial=G.P. Putnam's Sons |lloc=NewNova York |consulta= 24 juliol 2012 |url=https://archive.org/stream/frmontandstorya00dellgoog#page/n10/mode/2up}}
* ''Harper's Weekly'' political cartoon, [https://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/harp/0702.html "That's What's the Trouble with John C."]; Fremont's 1864 challenge to Lincoln's re-nomination.
* David H. Miller and Mark J. Stegmaier, ''James F. Milligan: His Journal of Fremont's Fifth Expedition, 1853–1854; His Adventurous Life on Land and Sea'', Arthur H. Clark Co., 1988. 300 pp.
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