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Una '''analogia''' (del grec αναλογíα ''ana'', reiteració o comparació i ''logos'', raó) expressa una comparació o relació entre diverses raons o conceptes; aquesta relació s'expressa per comparació entre éssers físics ([[objecte]]s, etc.) i/o experiències o altres conceptes [[abstracte]]s, mitjançant l'apreciació i l'assenyalament de característiques generals i particulars, i la generació de conductes o raonaments basant-se en l'existència de les seves semblances.
 
L'Analogia és un procés cognitiu de transferir informació de significat des d'un subjecte particular(l'anàleg o la font) a un altre (el "target"), i una expressió lingüística corresponent a tal procés.The word analogy can also refer to the relation between the source and the target themselves, which is often, though not necessarily, a similarity, as in the biological notion of analogy.
Niels Bohr's model of the atom made an analogy between the atom and the solar system.
 
Analogy plays a significant role in problem solving, decision making, perception, memory, creativity, emotion, explanation and communication. It lies behind basic tasks such as the identification of places, objects and people, for example, in face perception and facial recognition systems. It has been argued that analogy is "the core of cognition".[3] Specific analogical language comprises exemplification, comparisons, metaphors, similes, allegories, and parables, but not metonymy. Phrases like and so on, and the like, as if, and the very word like also rely on an analogical understanding by the receiver of a message including them. Analogy is important not only in ordinary language and common sense (where proverbs and idioms give many examples of its application) but also in science, philosophy and the humanities. The concepts of association, comparison, correspondence, mathematical and morphological homology, homomorphism, iconicity, isomorphism, metaphor, resemblance, and similarity are closely related to analogy. In cognitive linguistics, the notion of conceptual metaphor may be equivalent to that of analogy.
 
Analogy has been studied and discussed since classical antiquity by philosophers, scientists and lawyers. The last few decades have shown a renewed interest in analogy, most notable in cognitive science.
 
 
A més, ampliant-ne el seu significat, l'analogia estudia el nombre i categories de les [[paraules]], amb les quals es formen les [[preposicions]], i els accidents que hi poden ocórrer.
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