Llista de persones que han caminat damunt la Lluna

article de llista de Wikimedia

Dotze persones han caminat damunt la Lluna: el primer en fer-ho fou Neil Armstrong (1969) i l'últim Gene Cernan (1972). Tots els allunaments amb passatgers a bord tingueren lloc entre el juliol de 1969 i el desembre de 1972 com a part del programa Apollo dels Estats units; de fet, les dotze persones que hi han caminat són estatunidenques.

Alan Shepard fou la persona de més edat en caminar damunt la Lluna amb 47 anys i 80 dies; d'altra banda, Charles Duke fou el més jove, amb una edat de 36 anys i 201 dies. Duke, Buzz Aldrin, David Scott i Harrison Schmitt encara estan vius; A 11 de gener de 2020 (2020-01-11), la mort més recent és la d'Alan Bean.[1]

LlistaModifica

Imatge Número Nom Missió Naixement Mort Dates d'AEV lunar (UTC)[2] AEV lunars[2] Durada total de les AEV[2] Servei com a astronauta
  1. Armstrong, NeilNeil Armstrong Apollo 11 5 d'agost de 1930[3] 25 d'agost de 2012(2012-08-25) (als 82 anys) July 21, 1969[a] 1 2 hours 31 minutes NASA[b]
  2. Aldrin, BuzzBuzz Aldrin Apollo 11 20 de gener de 1930 (1930-01-20) (92 anys)[4] July 21, 1969[a] 1 2 hours 31 minutes Air Force
  3. Conrad, Charles "Pete"Charles "Pete" Conrad Apollo 12 2 de juny de 1930[5] 8 de juliol de 1999(1999-07-08) (als 69 anys) novembre 19–20, 1969 2 7 hours 45 minutes Navy
  4. Bean, AlanAlan Bean Apollo 12 15 de març de 1932[6] 26 de maig de 2018(2018-05-26) (als 86 anys) novembre 19–20, 1969 2 7 hours 45 minutes Navy
  5. Shepard, AlanAlan Shepard Apollo 14 18 de novembre de 1923[7] 21 de juliol de 1998(1998-07-21) (als 74 anys) February 5–6, 1971 2 9 hours 21 minutes Navy
  6. Mitchell, EdgarEdgar Mitchell Apollo 14 17 de setembre de 1930[8] 4 de febrer de 2016(2016-02-04) (als 85 anys) February 5–6, 1971 2 9 hours 21 minutes Navy
  7. Scott, DavidDavid Scott Apollo 15 6 de juny de 1932 (1932-06-06) (89 anys)[9] July 31–August 2, 1971 3 18 hours 33 minutes Air Force
  8. Irwin, JamesJames Irwin Apollo 15 17 de març de 1930[10] 8 de setembre de 1991(1991-09-08) (als 61 anys) July 31–August 2, 1971 3 18 hours 33 minutes Air Force
  9. Young, JohnJohn Young Apollo 16 24 de setembre de 1930[11] 5 de gener de 2018(2018-01-05) (als 87 anys) April 21–23, 1972 3 20 hours 14 minutes Navy
  10. Duke, CharlesCharles Duke Apollo 16 3 d'octubre de 1935 (1935-10-03) (86 anys)[12] April 21–23, 1972 3 20 hours 14 minutes Air Force
  11.[c] Cernan, GeneGene Cernan Apollo 17 14 de març de 1934[13] 16 de gener de 2017(2017-01-16) (als 82 anys) December 11–14, 1972 3 22 hours 2 minutes Navy
  12. Schmitt, HarrisonHarrison Schmitt Apollo 17 3 de juliol de 1935 (1935-07-03) (86 anys)[14] December 11–14, 1972 3 22 hours 2 minutes NASA
  1. 1,0 1,1 Americans alive at the time remember it as the night of juliol 20, 1969 (Armstrong set foot on the Moon at 10:56 p.m. Eastern Daylight Time), but it was the 21st in UTC.
  2. Armstrong had left the US Navy and was already a NASA employee when he and Elliot See became the first civilian astronauts in Astronaut Group 2. See Armstrong's NASA biography and a description of his receiving a NASA award, among others.
  3. Gene Cernan is known as the person to have most recently walked on the Moon. This list illustrates the first person to egress on each mission. Cernan was the first to egress but was the last person back in the lunar module, so he was the 11th to walk on the Moon and the most recent to have walked on it.

Potential moonwalkersModifica

Jim Lovell and Fred Haise were scheduled to walk on the Moon during the Apollo 13 mission, but the lunar landing was aborted following a major malfunction en route to the Moon.[15] Haise was again scheduled to walk on the Moon as commander of Apollo 19, but Apollo 18 and Apollo 19 were canceled on September 2, 1970.

NASA announced in July 2019 plans for another man and the first woman to walk on the Moon during Artemis 3 in 2024.[16][17]

Lunar activitiesModifica

Armstrong descended the lunar module ladder and spoke his famous epigram, "That's one small step for [a] man, one giant leap for mankind."[18] He then went to work on collecting the contingency sample, which was a scoop of the lunar surface collected early in the mission in case there was an emergency.[19] Armstrong took the TV camera off the lunar module and mounted it to a tripod.[20] After that, Aldrin descended the ladder to join Armstrong.[21] Aldrin egressed to the surface about nine minutes after Armstrong.[22] They had some trouble planting the American flag into the lunar soil, but were able to secure it into the surface. Aldrin positioned himself in front of a video camera and began experimenting with different locomotion techniques on the surface.[23] During these experiments, Armstrong and Aldrin received a phone call from President Nixon, congratulating them for the successful landing.[24]

Aldrin then set to work documenting the condition of the spacecraft to ensure it was in proper condition for their upcoming launch. After setting up a couple of experiments with Armstrong, Aldrin went to work hammering a tube into the lunar surface to obtain a core sample.[25] Aldrin's EVA ended when they loaded the lunar samples into the spacecraft and tossed out unneeded items, just before sealing the hatch.[20] Armstrong performed the majority of the photography on the surface, which is why there are only five photos of him on the Moon.[26]

Soon after piloting the LM Falcon to a landing at Hadley Rille, Scott accomplished the only stand-up EVA through the lander's top hatch, using it as a high place from which to refine the geology traverses he and Irwin would undertake during the following days. Scott became the first to drive a vehicle on the Moon as he drove the Lunar Roving Vehicle, more than doubling Apollo 14's EVA time. After the final traverse, back outside the LM, Scott performed a demonstration of Galileo's theory that all objects fall at the same rate in vacuum by dropping a hammer and a feather for the television camera.

Irwin came onto the lunar surface soon after his commander, Scott. As the LRV's first passenger, he had an often rough ride as Scott swerved to avoid craters.[27] It was Irwin who, during the second EVA, first spotted the Genesis Rock and aided Scott in collecting this bit of the early lunar crust.[28] A man of deep Christian religious faith, Irwin quoted from Psalms while on the lunar surface and later became an evangelist.[29]

Vegeu tambéModifica

NotesModifica

  1. «Now just four men who walked on the moon are still alive» (en anglès). Quartz, 26-05-2018.
  2. 2,0 2,1 2,2 Chaikin, 2007, p. 611–613.
  3. Hansen, 2012, p. 49–50.
  4. «To the Moon and beyond». The Record (Bergen County), 20-07-2009.
  5. «New Astronauts, 9 Hottest Jet Pilots in U.S., Have Been Training a Year». The Philadelphia Enquirer [Philadelphia, Pennsylvania], 18-09-1962, p. 3.
  6. «Ex-Coleman Resident Bean to be 4th on Moon». Abilene Reporter-News [Abilene, Texas], 14-11-1969, p. 2.
  7. Thompson, 2004, p. 7.
  8. New York Times News Service «Mitchell, Once a Cowpoke, is an Intellectual». The Evening Sun. New York Times News Service [Baltimore, Maryland], 01-02-1971.
  9. World Book Science Service «Flying is in Astronaut's Blood». Quad-City Times. World Book Science Service [Davenport, Iowa], 27-02-1969, p. 29.
  10. «A Who's Who on Apollo Crew». Daily News [Nova York, New York], 26-07-1971, p. 12.
  11. «Astronauts Could Have a Party». The Orlando Sentinel [Orlando, Florida], 03-02-1963, p. 15.
  12. Chaikin, 2007, p. 600.
  13. «Astronauts are Like Two Peas from a Pod». The Miami News [Miami, Florida], 03-06-1966, p. 10.
  14. «Schmitt One Of Those Who Has Been There». Alamogordo Daily News [Alamogordo, New Mexico], 16-10-1977, p. 10.
  15. «How Apollo 13's Dangerous Survival Mission Worked (Infographic)». Space.com, 13-04-2015.
  16. «NASA outlines plans for lunar lander development through commercial partnerships». , 21-07-2019.
  17. «NASA unveils schedule for 'Artemis' 2024 Moon mission». France24, 23-05-2019. [Consulta: 21 juliol 2019].
  18. Mikkelson, Barbara; Mikkelson, David. «One Small Misstep: Neil Armstrong's First Words on the Moon», octubre 2006. [Consulta: 19 setembre 2009].
  19. Meyer, Charles. «Lunar Sample Compendium: Contingency Soil (10010)». Astromaterials Research & Exploration Science. NASA, 2009. [Consulta: 13 juny 2013].
  20. 20,0 20,1 «First Steps». Apollo 11 Lunar Surface Journal. NASA, 1995. [Consulta: 23 setembre 2006].
  21. «One Small Step». Apollo 11 Lunar Surface Journal. NASA, 1995. [Consulta: 13 juny 2013].
  22. Orloff, 2000, p. 102–110.
  23. Chaikin, 2007, p. 212–213.
  24. Chaikin, 2007, p. 215.
  25. Chaikin, 2007, p. 216–217.
  26. «AS11-40-5886». NASA, 28-07-2011. Arxivat de l'original el 28 de juliol 2011.
  27. Chaikin, 2007, p. 417–418.
  28. Chaikin, 2007, p. 430–431.
  29. Chaikin, 2007, p. 437, 442, 557–558.

BibliografiaModifica