Shen Kuo

intel·lectual, científic i home d'estat xinès de la dinastia Song

Shen Kuo -en xinès: 沈括; en pinyin: Shěn kuò - (1031 - 1095) fou un polímata xinès. Va ser geòleg, astrònom, agrònom, ambaixador, general, matemàtic, cartògraf, enginyer hidràulic, meteoròleg, botànic, zoòleg, farmacòleg, autor, i buròcrata del govern de la Dinastia Song (960 - 1279) en Xina. Shen Kuo va viure a Qiantang, l'actual Hangzhou. el 1063, a l'edat de 35 anys, Shen Kuo va passar amb èxit l'examen imperial per al servei del Govern. Va ser ambaixador a l'Imperi Tangut i va estar a les campanyes militars dutes a terme contra ells. Va ser l'administrador principal de l'Oficina d'astronomia i Canceller de l'acadèmia de Han-lin. També va ser aliat polític i confident del canceller Wang Anshi i de l'emperador Shenzong (神宗 Shénzōng; 1067 - 1085).

Infotaula de personaShen Kuo
Shen Kua.JPG
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Biografia
Naixement1031 modifica
Hangzhou (RP Xina) modifica
Mort1095 modifica (63/64 anys)
Zhenjiang (RP Xina) modifica
Ambassador of China (en) Tradueix
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Activitat
Camp de treballMatemàtiques, astronomia, meteorologia, geologia, zoologia, botànica, farmacologia, agronomia, etnografia i cartografia modifica
OcupacióFísic, cartògraf, matemàtic, astrònom, poeta, enginyer civil, diplomàtic, enginyer, antropòleg, geòleg, polític, filòsof, inventor, escriptor, meteoròleg, farmacèutic, economista, astròleg, erudit, botànic, zoòleg i entomòleg modifica
Família
PareShen Zhou (en) Tradueix modifica

Shen Kuo va ser el primer en descriure la brúixola magnètica al seu llibre Mengxi Bitan. Això passava un segle abans que Alexander Neckham la descrigués a Europa. Va desenvolupar una teoria geològica de la geomorfologia observant en els dipòsits del fang, els fòssils de mar que es trobaven a les muntanyes, i els fòssils petrificats subterranis de bambú trobats a una regió en laque no hi creixia el bambú. Va descriure també la impressió amb tipus mòbils d'argila, inventada per l'artesà anomenat Bi Sheng en la dècada de 1041 i 1049. Va millorar les invencions de l'esfera armil·lar, del gnòmon, i del rellotge d'aigua o clepsidra. Va descobrir el concepte astronòmic del nord veritable, i va al·legar, que el sol i la lluna eren esfèrics, no plans, emprant l'observació de l'eclipsi solar i de l'eclipsi lunar. Va fer dos atles, i va crear una carta geogràfica tridimensional. Va ser també el primer a la Xina en descriure el dic sec per a la reparació de vaixells. Va reformar el calendari xinès amb base a unes observacions astronòmiques molt precises que va realitzar durant mesos.

Shen Kuo va viure al final de la seva vida uns anys en aïllament, a la casa que posseïa un jardí que li servia d'esplai, a prop de Zhenjiang, província de Jiangsu. La seva tomba està situada a la zona de Yuhang de Hangzhou, i recentment, el setembre de 2001, per iniciativa del Govern xinès s'ha reconstruït completament.

Vegeu tambéModifica

BibliografiaModifica

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Enllaços externsModifica

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