Obre el menú principal

Enciclopèdia dels Germans de la Puresa

L'Enciclopèdia dels Germans de Puresa (àrab: رسائل إخوان الصفا), altrament coneguda també com a Epístoles dels Germans de la Sinceritat, Epístoles dels Germans de la Puresa i Epístoles dels Germans de la Puresa i els amics Lleials, era una gran enciclopèdia de 52 tractats (rasā'il) escrita pels misteriosos Germans de la Puresa de Basra, Iraq, en algun punt de la segona meitat del segle xx dC (o potser més tard, el segle XI).[1][2] Va tenir una gran influència en pensaments intel·lectuals principals posteriors del món musulmà, com Ibn Arabi, i el coneixement de l'enciclopèdia es va transmetre fins a tota la zona que comprenia Al-Àndalus.[3][4][5][6] L'Enciclopèdia va contribuir a la popularització i legitimització del platonisme en el món islàmic.[7]

Infotaula de llibreEnciclopèdia dels Germans de la Puresa
(ar) رسائل إخوان الصفا
Tipus llibre i enciclopèdia
Fitxa tècnica
Autor Germans de la Puresa
Llengua àrab
Publicació Iraq, c. segle X (<segle XI)
Editorial valor desconegut
Detalls de l'obra
Gènere enciclopèdia
Capítols 52
Modifica les dades a Wikidata

La identitat i període dels autors de l'Enciclopèdia s'ha establert reeixidament, encara que l'obra sh'a lligat amb diversos grups com els Isma'ili, Sufites, Sunnites, Mu'tazili, alauites, Rosicrucians, etc.[8][9][10][11]

El tema de l'obra és vast i va des de matemàtiques, música, astronomia, i ciències naturals, fins a ètica, política, religió, i màgia —tot compilat per un propòsit bàsic: que l'aprenentatge és entrenament per l'ànima i com a preparació per la vida eventual una vegada que alliberat del cos.[12]

ReferènciesModifica

  1. "The work only professes to be an epitome, an outline; its authors lay claim to no originality, they only summarize what others have thought and discovered. What they do lay claim to is system and completeness. The work does profess to contain a systematized, harmonious and co-ordinated view of the universe and life, its origin and destiny, formed out of many discordant, incoherent views; and it does claim to be a 'complete account of all things' - to contain, in epitome, all that was known at the time it was written.
    Article principal: Ikhwan al-Safa
    It refers to more profound and special treatises for fuller information on the several sciences it touches upon, but it does claim to touch on all sciences, all departments of knowledge, and to set forth their leading results. In effect, it is, by its own showing, a 'hand-encyclopedia of Arabian philosophy in the tenth century'. It is not easy to exaggerate the importance of this encyclopedia. Its value lies in its completeness, in its systematizing of the results of Persian study." Stanley Lane-Poole (1883), pages 190, 191.
  2. "Having been hidden within the cloak of secrecy from its very inception, the Rasa'il have provided many points of contention and have been a constant source of dispute among both Muslim and Western scholars. The identification of the authors, or possibly one author, the place and time of writing and propagation of their works, the nature of the secret brotherhood the outer manifestation of which comprises the Rasa'il - these and many secondary questions have remained without answer." Nasr (1964), pg 25.
  3. "It is probable that they have influenced some of the most prominent thinkers of Islam, such as al-Ghazzali (d. 1111A.D.) and Ibn al'Arabi (d. 1240 A.D.)." van Reijn (1995), pg. "v".
  4. "The Rasa'il were widely read by most learned men of later periods, including Ibn Sina and al-Ghazzali, have continued to be read up to our own times, and have been translated into Persian, Turkish, and Hindustani. From the number of manuscripts present in various libraries in the Muslim world, it must be considered among the most popular of Islamic works on learning." Nasr (1964), pg. 36
  5. Van Reijn (1945), pg "v"
  6. "But they produced this enormous encyclopaedia, and um, everybody read it and we know that it was widely read by mathematicians in Spain, and by philosophers in Spain. Most crucially of all, it was read by Muhyi-I-din - ibn-al-Arabi, er, the most famous Sufi that Spain produced, or indeed one of the most famous Sufis in the history of Islamic mysticism - er, he died in 1240. Er, he absorbed a lot of their ideas and he was in turn read by these ministers of the Nasrid monarch ibn-al-Khratib, and ibn-al-Zamrak, both of whom had strong, mystical tendencies." Robert Irwin; "In the Footsteps of Muhammad", transcript of a BBC program
  7. "George Sales observes that this uncreated Qur'an is nothing but its idea or Platonic archetype; it is likely that al-Ghazali used the idea of archetypes, communicated to Islam by the Encyclopedia of the Brethren of Purity and by Avicenna to justify the notion of the Mother of the Book." From "On the Cult of Books", Selected Non-Fictions, Jorge Luis Borges; ed. Eliot Weinberger, trans. Ester Allen, Suzanne Jill Levine, and Eliot Weinberger; 1999. ISBN 0-670-84947-2. See: Origin and development of the Qur'an#"Created" vs. "uncreated" Qur'an for the concept of the "uncreated Qur'an".
  8. Ikhwan as-Safa'. (2007). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved April 25, 2007, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online
  9. Brethren of Purity, Nader El-Bizri, an article in Medieval Islamic Civilization, an Encyclopedia, Vol. I, p. 118-119, Routledge (New York-London, 2006). Retrieved from [1].
  10. "Ibn al-Qifti, giving his own view, considers the Ikhwan as followers of the school of the Mu'tazilah...Ibn Tamiyah, the Hanbali jurist, on the other hand, tends towards the other extreme in relating the Ikhwan to the Nusairis, who are as far removed from the rationalists as any group to be found in Islam." Nasr (1964), pg 26.
  11. Isma'ili, Yezidi, Sufi. «The Brethren Of Purity». [Consulta: 17 maig 2006].
  12. Walker, Paul E. "EḴWĀN AL-ṢAFĀʾ". In Encyclopædia Iranica. December 15, 1998.
  • Van Reijn, Eric. The Epistles of the Sincere Brethren: an annotated translation of Epistles 43-47. 1. 1st. Minerva Press, 1995. ISBN 1-85863-418-0. 

Enllaços externsModifica

A Wikimedia Commons hi ha contingut multimèdia relatiu a: Enciclopèdia dels Germans de la Puresa