Diferència entre revisions de la pàgina «Batalla de Bannockburn»

cap resum d'edició
{{VPHISMILCAT Infotaula conflicte militar|
imatge=[[Fitxer:Bannockburn.jpg|300px|La batalla de Bannockburn en una il·lustració de la Bíblia de Holkham (1327-35)]]|
L'exèrcit anglès avançava ràpidament, arribant a [[Edinburgh]] el 19 de juny i [[Falkirk]] el 22, a només 15 milles de Stirling, tot seguint una vella [[via romana]] que creuava un bosc conegut com a "Tor Wood". Allí s'estava reunint l'exèrcit escocès, doncs el bosc oferia cobertura pels seus moviments i facilitaven una possible retirada. Les tropes de Bruce eren majoritàriament infants armats amb llargues llances, dividits en tres seccions, més un petit contingent de cavalleria. Els arquers, no másmés de 500, no van tenir un paper important en la batalla.<ref>The Chronicle of Lanercost, 1272–1346 : Translated, with notes by Sir Herbert Maxwell. p.206</ref>
El rei Robert era calculador i mai estava disposat a apostar-ho tot en una sola batalla, com li va passar a [[William Wallace]] a la [[Batalla de Falkirk]]. Així ho sabien els anglesos, que confiaven que la seva superioritat numèrica obligaria a Robert a retirar-se,<ref name="Chronicle of Lanercost">{{cite book|last=Maxwell|first=Herbert|title=The Chronicle of Lanercost 1272–1346 : Translated, with notes|year=1913|publisher=James Maclehose & Sons|location=Glasgow}}</ref> però aquest cop el rei va decidir presentar batalla, especialment degut aal fet que el terreny li era molt favorable.: diversos rius i torrents regaven els camps, de manera que l'únic terra sòlid practicable per la cavalleria enemiga era la via romana, per on els anglesos avançaven en formació molt estreta i sense espai per desplegar-se.
Diversos rius i torrents regaven els camps, de manera que l'únic terra sòlid practicable per la cavalleria enemiga era la via romana, per on avançaven en formació molt estreta.
==Primer dia de la batalla==
[[File:Mapbannockburn1.svg|thumb|right|300px|Primer dia de la batalla]]
El 23 de juny, diumenge, la vanguardal'avatnguarda anglesa va divisaralbirar la secció liderada pel rei Robert. Fou llavors quan
un cavaller anglès, [[Henry de Bohun]], va divisarveure el rei cavalcant a certa distància, allunyat de les seves tropes.
[[File:Bruce defeats de Bohun on the eve of Bannockburn, from a children's history book.jpg|thumb|left|El rei Robert derrota el cavaller De Bohun]]
De Bohun, pensant que podia assolir la glòria acabant amb el rei escocès, va carregar contra ell en solitari. El rei Robert no portava armes ni armadura, a part de la seva destral, <ref>Hyland, Ann. ''The Warhorse 1250–1600'', UK: Sutton Publishing, 1998, p 38</ref> però va maniobrar ràpidament el seu cavall evitant la càrrega del cavaller anglès i d'un cop de destral li va partir el casc i el cap en dos. Aquest encontre, a la vista dels dos exèrcits, marcaria el desenvolupament de la batalla: els anglesos fortament armats però sense agilitat ni maniobra caurien en mans dels escocesos, més hàbils, que aprofitaren tàctiques oportunístiquesoportunistes.
Encoratjats pel duel, la divisió del rei Robert va caure sobre la vanguardal'avantguarda anglesa, fent-la retrocedir cap elsals boscs. Al mateix temps, una segona força de cavalleria anglesa liderada per [[Robert Clifford]] i [[Henry de Beaumont]] avançaven cap a Stiling i foren interceptats per les formacions tancades dels escocesos, armats amb llargues llances per defensar-se de les càrregues dels cavalls.
==Segon dia de la batalla==
[[File:Mapbannockburn1.2.svg|thumb|right|300px|Segon dia de la batalla]]
El rei Robert havia disposat diverses trampes i obstacles en el terreny per forçar els anglesos a seguir per la via romana, avançant de manera molt lenta des del sud. L'alba del 24 de juny, els llancers escocesos sortiren del seu amagatall en el bosc a l'encontre d'Edward III, fent una petita pausa per les seves oracions. Es diu que el rei anglès, al veure els escocesos pregant de genolls, va exclamar "Demanen pietat!!" "Pietat, si." Li va respondre un dels seus consellers, "Però de Déu, no de vos. Aquests homes venen a vèncer o morir."<ref>Ronald McNair Scott (1988). Robert the Bruce, King of Scots. Canongate:p. 158</ref>
The English army was still approaching Stirling from the south. Bruce's preparations had made the direct approach to Stirling too hazardous. Edward made the worst decision of all: he ordered the army to cross the Bannockburn to the east of the New Park.
Not long after daybreak on 24 June, the Scots spearmen began to move towards the English. Edward was surprised to see Robert's army emerge from the cover of the woods. As Bruce's army drew nearer, they paused and knelt in prayer. Edward is supposed to have said in surprise "They pray for mercy!" "For mercy, yes," one of his attendants replied, "But from God, not you. These men will conquer or die."<ref>Ronald McNair Scott (1988). Robert the Bruce, King of Scots. Canongate:p. 158</ref>
One of the English earls, Gloucester, asked the king to hurry up, but the king accused him of cowardice. Angered, the earl mounted his horse and led the vanguard on a charge against the leading Scots spearmen, commanded by Edward Bruce. Gloucester, who according to some accounts had not bothered to don his [[surcoat]], was killed in the forest of Scottish spears, along with some of the other knights. The very size and strength of the great army was beginning to work against the English king, as his army could not move quickly and lost a lot of time in getting into position.
Bruce then committed his whole Scots army to an inexorable bloody push into the disorganised English mass, fighting side by side across a single front. Edward's army was now so tightly packed that if a man fell, he risked being immediately crushed underfoot or suffocated and the English and Welsh longbowmen failed to get a clear shot in fear they might hit their own men. After some time they moved to the side of Douglas's division and began shooting into its left, but Robert the Bruce had anticipated this, and upon his command the Scottish 500-horse light cavalry under the Marischal [[Robert II Keith, Marischal of Scotland|Sir Robert Keith]] dispersed them. The returning fleeing archers then caused the infantry itself to begin to flee.<ref>Ronald McNair Scott: ''Robert the Bruce, King of Scots'', Canongate 1996, p 159, ISBN 0-86241-616-7</ref> Later the knights began to escape back across the Bannockburn.
With the English formations beginning to break, a great shout went up from the Scots, "Lay on! Lay on! Lay on! They fail!" This cry was heard by Bruce's [[camp follower]]s, who promptly gathered weapons and banners and charged forward. To the English army, close to exhaustion, this appeared to be a fresh reserve and they lost all hope. The English forces north of the Bannockburn broke into flight. Some tried to cross the [[River Forth]] where most drowned in the attempt.<ref>Reese, p. 167</ref> Others tried to get back across the Bannockburn, but as they ran, “tumbling one over the other” down the steep, slippery banks, a deadly crush ensued so that “men could pass dryshod upon the drowned bodies”.<ref>Reese, p.167</ref>
Edward fled with his personal bodyguard, ending the remaining order in the army; panic spread and defeat turned into a [[rout]]. He arrived eventually at [[Dunbar Castle]], from here he took ship to England. From the carnage of Bannockburn, the rest of the army tried to escape to the safety of the English border, ninety miles to the south. Many were killed by the pursuing Scottish army or by the inhabitants of the countryside that they passed through. Historian Peter Reese says that, "only one sizeable group of men—all footsoldiers—made good their escape to England."<ref name="Reese1">Reese, p.174</ref> These were a force of Welsh spearmen who were kept together by their commander, Sir Maurice de Berkeley, and the majority of them reached Carlisle.<ref name="Reese1">Reese, p.174</ref> Weighing up the available evidence, Reese concludes that "it seems doubtful if even a third of the footsoldiers returned to England."<ref name="Reese1"/> Out of 16,000 infantrymen, this would give a total of about 11,000 killed. The English chronicler [[Thomas Walsingham]] gave the number of English men-at-arms who were killed as 700,<ref name="referencing1">Mackenzie, p.88 referencing Walsingham, p.141</ref> while 500 more men-at-arms were spared for ransom.<ref>Mackenzie, p.90</ref> The Scottish losses appear to have been comparatively light, with only two knights among those killed.<ref>Reese, p.176</ref>
==Notable casualties==
*[[Gilbert de Clare, 8th Earl of Gloucester]]
*Sir [[Giles d'Argentan]]
*[[John Lovel, 2nd Baron Lovel]]
*[[John Comyn (c. 1294-1314)|John Comyn, Lord of Badenoch]]
*[[Robert de Clifford, 1st Baron de Clifford]]
*Sir [[Henry de Bohun]]
*[[William le Marshal]], Marshal of Ireland
*[[Edmund de Mauley]], [[Lord Steward|King's Steward]]
*[[Sir Robert de Felton]] of [[Litcham]], 1st Lord
*[[Humphrey de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford]]
*[[John de Segrave, 2nd Baron Segrave]]
*[[Maurice de Berkeley, 2nd Baron Berkeley]]
*Sir [[Marmaduke Tweng]]
*[[Ralph de Monthermer, 1st Baron Monthermer]]
*[[Robert de Umfraville, Earl of Angus]]
*Sir [[Anthony de Luci]]
*Sir [[Ingram de Umfraville]]
==Historical significance==
The Scottish victory was complete and, although full English recognition of Scottish independence was not achieved until more than ten years later, Robert Bruce's position as king was greatly strengthened by the outcome. However, the fighting resumed in the 1330s during the early reign of King Edward III, with significant English victories at the [[Battle of Dupplin Moor]] and the [[Battle of Halidon Hill]].
El senyor de Gloucester va sol·licitar al rei atacar en aquell mateix moment, però aquest es va negar considerant-ho un acte de covardia. Aparentment el senyor de Gloucester va atacar de totes maneres per acabar empalat contra el bosc de llances escoceses juntament amb els seus homes. El tamany de l'exèrcit anglès començava a ser un problema seriós, doncs van perdre un temps massa valuós preparant la formació d'atac.
[[File:Robert the Bruce statue, Bannockburn - geograph.org.uk - 1538090.jpg|thumb|right|260px|Statue of Robert the Bruce by Pilkington Jackson, near the Bannockburn Heritage Centre]]
Les tropes escoceses, al contrari, avançaren en bloc, empentant la massa enemiga. Els homes d'Edward estavan tan junts que si un queia era esclafat pels seus companys, i els arquers gal·lesos no tenien espai per disparar. Desesperats per tenir una bona visió de l'enemic, els arquers es desplaçaren cap a l'esquerra, però Robert Bruce s'havia anticipat i la seva cavalleria lleugera de 500 genets els va dispersar. El pànic dels arquers fugint per la seva vida es va contagiar a la infanteria anglesa que va començar a fugir.<ref>Ronald McNair Scott: ''Robert the Bruce, King of Scots'', Canongate 1996, p 159, ISBN 0-86241-616-7</ref>
===The battlefield===
In 1932 the Bannockburn Preservation Committee, under [[Edward Bruce, 10th Earl of Elgin]] and Kincardine, presented lands to the [[National Trust for Scotland]]. Further lands were purchased in 1960 and 1965 to facilitate visitor access.
A modern monument stands in a field above the battle site, where the warring parties are believed to have camped on the night before the battle. The monument consists of two hemicircular walls depicting the opposing parties. Nearby stands the 1960s statue of Bruce by [[Pilkington Jackson]]. The monument, and the associated visitor centre, is one of the most popular tourist attractions in the area. The battlefield has been included in the [[Inventory of Historic Battlefields in Scotland]] and protected by [[Historic Scotland]] under the Historic Environment (Amendment) Act 2011.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.historic-scotland.gov.uk/index/heritage/battlefields/battlefieldsunderconsideration.htm |title= Inventory battlefields|publisher=Historic Scotland | accessdate=2012-04-12}}</ref>
Els crits eufòrics dels escocesos, que veien com l'enemic començava a fugir en desbandada, va atreure tots aquells que encara hi havia al campament, no necessàriament homes d'armes però servents, cuiners i d'altres que acompanyaven l'exèrcit, que prengueren tota mena d'armes i carregaren també contra l'enemic. Els anglesos es pensaren que aquests eren tropes fresques de reserva i perderen tota esperança. Alguns intentaren creuar el riu [[Forth]] però la majoria s'ofegà.<ref>Reese, p. 167</ref> Altres intentaren creuar de nou el Bannockburn, però a mesura que fugien pel terreny ple d'aigua i fang eren caçats sense pietat pels homes de Robert.<ref>Reese, p.167</ref>
===Bannockburn Heritage Centre===
[[File:Fm bannockburn monument.jpg|thumb|right|260px|The modern Bannockburn monument]]
The [[National Trust for Scotland]] operates the Bannockburn Heritage Centre, which is open daily from March through October. On 31 October 2012 the building was closed<ref>{{cite news | url=http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-scotland-tayside-central-20141188 | publisher=BBC News | title=Bannockburn Heritage Centre closes before demolition | date=31 October 2012 | accessdate=31 October 2012}}</ref> for demolition and replacement by a new design, inspired by traditional Scottish buildings, by Reiach and Hall Architects. The project is a partnership between the National Trust for Scotland and [[Historic Scotland]], funded by the Scottish Government and the [[Heritage Lottery Fund]].<ref>{{cite web | url=http://www.battleofbannockburn.com/About-the-project/ | accessdate=29 September 2012 | title=Bannockburn : About the project}}</ref>
Edward va fugir amb la seva guàrdia personal, fins arribar al [[Castell de Dunbar]], des d'on es va embarcar de retorn a Anglaterra. Molts dels seus homes que no foren morts en el camp de batalla, van caure quan buscaven refugi en les poblacions veïnes. L'historiador Peter Reese diu que "només un grup d'un considerable nombre d'infants va aconseguir arribar a Anglaterra."<ref name="Reese1">Reese, p.174</ref> Aquests foren un grup de galesos que va romandre unit sota el seu comandant Sir Maurice de Berkeley fins arribar a [[Carlisle]].<ref name="Reese1">Reese, p.174</ref> Així doncs, Reese considera poc probable que més d'un terç dels soldats anglesos escapés amb vida.<ref name="Reese1"/>
"[[Scots Wha Hae]]" is the title of a patriotic poem by [[Robert Burns]].<ref>[http://www.gutenberg.org/files/18500/18500-h/18500-h.htm#CCVII The Complete Works of Robert Burns] at Project Gutenberg.</ref> The chorus of Scotland's unofficial national anthem ''[[Flower of Scotland]]'' refers to Scotland's victory over Edward and the English at Bannockburn.
==Importància històrica==
La victòria escocesa fou total i va enfortir molt la posició de Robert Bruce al capdavant de la corona. Escòcia seria reconeguda per Anglaterra com nació totalment independent déu anys més tard. Malgrat tot, els enfrontaments entre ambdues nacions continuaria més endavant, amb sonades victòries angleses a les batalles de [[Batalla de Dupplin Moor|Dupplin Moor]] i [[Batalla de Halidon Hill|Halidon Hill]].
* Barbour, John, ''The Bruce'', trans. A. A. M. Duncan, 1964.
* Bower, Walter, ''[[Scotichronicon]]'', ed. D. E. R. Watt, 1987–1993.
* Gray, Thomas, ''Scalicronica'', edited and translated by H Maxwell, 1913.
* ''The Lanercost Chronicle'', edited and translated by H. Maxwell, 1913.
* ''Vita Edwardi Secundi'' (Life of Edward the Second), ed. N. D. Young, 1957.
* Walsingham, Thomas, ''Historiana Anglicana''.
<references />
* Barrow, G. W. S., ''Robert Bruce and the Community of the Realm of Scotland'', 1988,ISBN 0-85224-604-8
* Brown, C.A., "Bannockburn 1314",History Press,Stroud, 2008, ISBN 978-0-7524-4600-4.
* Nicholson, R., ''Scotland-the Later Middle Ages'', 1974.
* Prestwich, M., ''The Three Edwards: War and State in England, 1272–1377'', 1980
* Ramsay, J. H., ''The Genesis of Lancaster'', 1307–99, 1913.
* Brown, C.A., ''Robert the Bruce. A life Chronicled''.
* MacNamee, C., ''The Wars of the Bruces''
* Brown, M., ''Wars of Scotland''
* Reese, P., ''Bannockburn'', Canongate, Edinburgh, 2003, ISBN 1-84195-465-9
* Mackenzie, W. M., ''Bannockburn: A Study in Medieval Warfare'', The Strong Oak Press, Stevenage 1989 (first published 1913), ISBN 1-871048-03-6
* Armstrong, Pete (illustrated by Graham Turner), ''Bannockburn 1314: Robert Bruce's Great Victory'', Osprey Publishing, 2002 ISBN 1-85532-609-4
* Scott, W., "Bannockburn Proved", 2006
* {{Cite EB1911|wstitle=Bannockburn}}
==ExternalEnllaços linksexterns==
*[http://www.theartofbattle.com/battle-of-bannockburn-1314.htm Battle of Bannockburn animated battle map] byper Jonathan Webb
*[http://www.battleofbannockburn.com The Battle of Bannockburn 700th Anniversary Project]