Diferència entre revisions de la pàgina «República d'Irlanda»

 
[[File:President Higgins's visit FINIRISH BATT HQ, Lebanon (cropped).jpg|thumb|upright|left|President [[Michael D. Higgins]]]]
TheEl Presidentpresident servesdel aspaís fa les funcions de [[headcap of stated'estat]], andessent iselegit electeden formandats ade seven-yearset termanys andde mayduració, beamb re-electedla oncepossibilitat de ser reelegit només en una ocasió. TheLa Presidentfigura isdel primarilypresident aés [[figureheadprincipalment (metaphor)|figurehead]]cerimonial, buttot isi entrustedque withdisposa certainde constitutionalcerts powerspoders withconstitucionals, theessent adviceaconsellat of thepel [[CouncilConsell of Stated'Estat (IrelandIrlanda)|Council ofConsell Stated'Estat]]. TheL'oficina office hasdiscreció absoluteabsoluta discretion inen somealgunes areasàrees, suchcom asara referringla ade billpassar touna thellei Supremeal CourtTribunal forSuprem aper judgmentvalorar-ne onla itsseva constitutionalityconstitucionalitat.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.president.ie/en/the-president/constitutional-role |title=Office of the President – Powers and Functions |accessdate=4 January 2011}}</ref> [[Michael D. Higgins]] becamees theva ninthconvertir Presidenten ofel Irelandnovè onPresident d'Irlanda l'11 Novemberde novembre de 2011.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.independent.ie/irish-news/president-michael-d-promises-seven-years-of-new-ideas-26791169.html |title=President Michael D promises seven years of new ideas |accessdate=11 November 2011 | work=Irish Independent |date=11 November 2011}}</ref>
 
TheEl ''{{lang|ga|[[Taoiseach]]}}'' (PrimePrimer MinisterMinistre) servesés as theel [[headcap ofde governmentgovern]] anddel ispaís, appointedessent byescollit thepel President upondesprés thede nominationser ofnomenat thepel {{lang|ga|''Dáil}}''. MostLa majoria dels ''{{lang|ga|Taoisigh}}'' havehan servedestat asels thelíders leaderpolítics ofdel thepartit politicalamb partymés thatescons gainsaconseguits thea mostles seatseleccions innacionals. nationalS'ha elections.convertit Iten hasuna becomecostum customaryla forformació de [[CoalitionGovern de governmentcoalició|coalitionscoalicions]] toper formformar a governmentgovern, asno thereproduint-se hascap notgovern beend'un asol single-partypartit governmentdes sincedel 1989.<ref>{{cite book|last=McGrath|first=Conor|author2=Eoin O'Malley|title=Irish political studies reader: key contributions|editor=Conor McGrath, Eoin O'Malley|publisher=Routledge|year=2007|page=54|isbn= 978-0-415-44648-8|url=https://books.google.com/?id=H_fcNWfZ7hIC&pg=PA54&dq=%22in+1989+Haughey+called+a+snap+general+election+in+the+hope+of+gaining+an+overall+majority%22#v=onepage&q=%22in%201989%20Haughey%20called%20a%20snap%20general%20election%20in%20the%20hope%20of%20gaining%20an%20overall%20majority%22&f=false|accessdate=15 March 2011}}</ref> [[Leo Varadkar]] succeededva succeir a [[Enda Kenny]] ascom a Taoiseach onel 14 Junede juny de 2017.
 
[[File:Leo_Varadkar_2011.jpg|thumb|upright|Taoiseach [[Leo Varadkar]]]]
El ''Seanad'' està composat per seixanta membres, essent-ne onze nomenats pel ''Taoiseach'', sis elegits per dues universitats, i 43 elegits entre representants públics de candidatures establertes segons bases vocacionals. El ''Dáil'' consta de 158 membres (''[[Teachta Dála|Teachtaí Dála]]'') escollits per representar els escons de les [[Circumscripcions del Dáil|circumscripcions]] en què es divideix el país, essent elegits mitjançant un sistema de [[Escrutini proporcional|representació proporcional]] mitjançant el [[vot únic transferible]].
The {{lang|ga|Seanad}} is composed of sixty members, with eleven nominated by the {{lang|ga|Taoiseach}}, six elected by two universities, and 43 elected by public representatives from panels of candidates established on a vocational basis. The {{lang|ga|Dáil}} has 158 members (''{{lang|ga|[[Teachta Dála|Teachtaí Dála]]}}'') elected to represent multi-seat [[Dáil constituencies|constituencies]] under the system of [[proportional representation]] and by means of the [[single transferable vote]].
 
The [[Government of Ireland|Government]] is constitutionally limited to fifteen members. No more than two members can be selected from the {{lang|ga|Seanad}}, and the {{lang|ga|Taoiseach}}, ''{{lang|ga|[[Tánaiste]]}}'' (Deputy Prime Minister) and [[Minister for Finance (Ireland)|Minister for Finance]] must be members of the {{lang|ga|Dáil}}. The Dáil must be dissolved within five years after its first meeting following the previous election,<ref>{{cite irish legislation |year=1992 |type=pub |number=23 |section=33 |name=Electoral Act, 1992}}</ref> and a general election for members of the Dáil must take place no later than thirty days after the dissolution. According to the [[Constitution of Ireland]], parliamentary elections must be held at least every seven years, though a lower limit may be set by statute law. The current government is a Fine Gael led minority government led by [[Leo Varadkar]] as [[Taoiseach]] and [[Simon Coveney]] as [[Tánaiste]]. It is supported by a number of independents including [[Shane Ross]] and former Senator [[Katherine Zappone]]. The minority government is held in place by a [[confidence and supply]] deal with Fianna Fáil. Opposition parties in the current {{lang|ga|Dáil}} are [[Fianna Fáil]], [[Sinn Féin]], the [[Labour Party (Ireland)|Labour Party]], [[Solidarity–People Before Profit]], [[Social Democrats (Ireland)|Social Democrats]], [[Workers and Unemployed Action]], the [[Green Party (Ireland)|Green Party]] as well as a number of [[Independent politician|independents]].
 
Irlanda és [[Estats membres de la Unió Europea|estat membre de la Unió Europea]] des del 1973, tot i que va decidir mantenir-se fora de l'[[espai Schengen]]. Els ciutadans del Regne Unit poden entrar lliurement al país sense passaport gràcies a la [[Common Travel Area]], espai lliure de passaport que compren les illes d'Irlanda, la Gran Bretanya, l'[[Illa de Man]] i les [[Illes Anglonormandes|illes del Canal]]. Tot i així, es necessita disposar d'algun tipus de document identificatiu en aeroports i ports.
Ireland has been a [[member state of the European Union]] since 1973, but has chosen to remain outside the [[Schengen Area]]. Citizens of the United Kingdom can freely enter the country without a passport due to the [[Common Travel Area]], which is a passport-free zone comprising the islands of Ireland, Great Britain, the [[Isle of Man]] and the [[Channel Islands]]. However, some identification is required at airports and seaports.
 
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