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Article Henry Spira Comparant amb aquesta versió:

Vida tempranaModifica

El seu pare va tornar per ells el 1938; havia obert una tenda de venda de roba barata i joieria, sobretot per mariners, i a s'havia tornat menys segura pels jueus. Henry va ser enviat a una escola catòlica romana portada per monges, on les lliçons eren impartides en espanyol, però li disgustava fortament l'enfocament super-religiós de l'escola i va esser alleujat

His father sent for them in 1938; he had opened a store selling cheap clothes and jewellery, mostly to sailors, and Germany was an increasingly unsafe place for Jews. Henry was sent to a Roman Catholic school run by nuns, where lessons were conducted in Spanish, but he strongly disliked the super-religious focus of the school, and was relieved when his father ran out of money and could no longer afford the fees. He spent the next year working in his father's store.[1]

Nova York i Hashomer HatzairModifica

When he was thirteen, in December 1940, the family set sail for New York via Havana on the SS Copiapo. His father took a job in the diamond industry, and rented an apartment on West 104th Street. Henry was sent to public school. He continued to study Hebrew — paying for lessons himself with vacation jobs — had his Bar Mitzvah ceremony, and began to wear a kippah.

In 1943, while at Stuyvesant High School, he became involved with Hashomer Hatzair, a left-wing, non-religious, Zionist group that helped to prepare young Jews to live on kibbutzim in Palestine. There were summer camps, where they were taught how to farm, lots of hiking, and lessons about the equality of men and women. Peter Singer writes that the anti-materialism and independence of mind that Spira learned from his time with Hashomer Hatzair — where he adopted his Hebrew name, Noah — stayed with him for the rest of his life. He decided to leave home when he was sixteen, taking lodgings and an afternoon job in a machine shop, and attending school in the mornings.[1][2]

Vida a la marina mercant i l'exercitModifica

He left New York in 1945 to become a merchant seaman, but he was blacklisted as a security risk in March 1952, during the McCarthy era, because of his involvement in left-wing politics; his presence on an American merchant vessel was "inimical to the security of the U.S. government," he was told. He later told Peter Singer, "I just figured it was part of the game: Fight the system and they get even with you."[1]

He was drafted into the U.S. Army, serving in Berlin in 1953-54. Peter Singer writes that Spira was also involved in the civil rights movement, and reported on Fidel Castro's rise to power in Cuba for The Militant, a left-wing newspaper.[3]

After two years in the Army, he worked at the General Motors factory in Linden, New Jersey on the assembly line. In 1958, he graduated as a mature student from Brooklyn College in New York, and in 1966 began teaching English literature in a New York high school, teaching students from the ghettos.[3]

  1. 1,0 1,1 1,2 Error de citació: Etiqueta <ref> no vàlida; no s'ha proporcionat text per les refs amb l'etiqueta Singer1
  2. Error de citació: Etiqueta <ref> no vàlida; no s'ha proporcionat text per les refs amb l'etiqueta NYT1998
  3. 3,0 3,1 Error de citació: Etiqueta <ref> no vàlida; no s'ha proporcionat text per les refs amb l'etiqueta SpiraSinger214