Usuari:Wgarcia/proves

Infotaula de grup humàArmenis de Turquia
Türkiye Ermenileri
Població total50,000—70,000[1]
(excloent el cripto-armenis i els armenis ètnics hamshenis)
Llenguaturc (majoria), armeni (minoria)[2][3]
ReligióCristians (predominantment Església Apostòlica Armènia, minories de l'Església Catòlica Armènia i Església Evangèlica Armènia); no religiosos i musulmans.
Regions amb poblacions significatives
İstanbul, Hatay

Els armenis de Turquia (turc: Türkiye Ermenileri; armeni: Թուրքահայեր, també Թրքահայեր, «armenis turcs»), un dels pobles indígenes de Turquia, tenen una població estimada entre 50.000 i 70.000,[4][5] des dels 2 milions que hi havia el 1914. Avui en dia, pràcticament la totalitat del armenis turcs viuen a Istanbul. Donen suport als seus propis diaris i escoles, i la major part pertanyen a l'Església apostòlica armènia.

Fins al genocidi armeni de 1915, la major part de la població armènia a Turquia (aleshores l'Imperi Otomà) vivien a la part oriental del país, que els armenis anomenen Armènia occidental (que correspon aproximadament a la moderna Regió de l'Anatòlia Oriental).

HistòriaModifica

Els armenis que viuen avui en dia a Turquia són el que queda del que havia estat una comunitat molt més gran que va existir per milers d'anys, molt abans de l'establiment del Soldanat de Rum. Les estimacions de la població armènia a l'Imperi Otomà a la dècada abans de la Primera Guerra Mundial oscil·len entre 1,3 i 2 milions.[6][7]

Quan Constantinoble va esdevenir finalment part de l'Imperi Otomà, el sultà li va donar suport financer a l'església apostòlica, per poder construir esglésies a la ciutat, cosa que abans no s'havia fet perquè els bizantins consideraven herètica a l'església. Els armenis a l'Imperi Otomà eren tractats com un millet separat, i rebien el tractament de ciutadans de segona classe, però eren tractats correctament fins pràcticament el final de l'imperi malgrat això. Molts armenis van guanyar posicions significatives a l'imperi en posicions com ara la banca, de la qual pràcticament tenien un monopoli, ja que més d'un 80% dels banquers eren armenis i l'empresa més antiga encara activa a Turquia (Zildjian) va ser fundada per un armeni.

Començant al final del segle XIX, la inestabilitat política, les condicions econòmiques i les contínues tensions ètniques van generar l'emigració d'almenys 100.000 armenis a Europa, Amèrica i el Proper Orient. Aquest èxode massiu de l'Imperi Otomà és el que va començar la diàspora armènia moderna a tot el món.

Va haver-hi molts conflictes entre els armenis i els turcs entre 1982 i 1915. El genocidi armeni[8] es va desenvolupar al període des de 1915–1916 fins a 1918, durant el qual el govern otomà d'aquell moment va ordenar la deportació i massacre d'entre 0,9 i 1,2 milions d'armenis al·legant motius polítics i de seguretat. Aquestes mesures van afectar a la gran majoria dels armenis, un 75-80% dels armenis que vivien a l'Imperi Otomà durant la Primera Guerra Mundial. Molts van morir directament a massacres, mentre que d'altres van morir a causa de la deshidratació, malalties i fam durant les marxes de la mort al desert de Deir Ez-Zor, i encara més durant els assalts dels kurds als refugiats que s'escapaven i a les marxes de la mort organitzades per les autoritats.

Quant als armenis restants a la parts orientals del país, van trobar refugi al període 1917-1918 al Caucas i a les àrees controlades per la nova República Democràtica Armènia. Mai no van retornar als seus domicilis originaris a la Turquia oriental (compostos de sis vilayets, és a dir Erzurum, Van, Bitlis, Diyarbekir, Mamuretülaziz i Sivas. [9][10] Els seus descendents es coneixen com a armenis ocults i hi estan presents a tot arreu l'Armènia occidental, però particularment a Dersim (Tuncelli), on es van viure conversions massives.

La major part dels supervivents armenis de la Cilícia i de les parts més al sud amb armenis com Diyarbakir van acabar al nord de Síria i l'Orient mitjà. Tot els que van sobreviure les deportacions a Deir al-Zor també fan acabar aquí. Els armenis deportats de les àrees sota control dels aliats al 1918, particularment l'efímer Mandat francès de Síria, que tenia control de la Turquia del sud-est i tota la [[Cilícia] d'acord amb els acords de Sykes-Picot, van poder tornar a les seves llars a recuperar les seves coses i buscar als seus éssers estimats. Després de la caiguda de la Cilícia francesa, alguns dels retornats van intentar quedar-se permanentment després que el territori es recuperés per a Turquia, però van acabar marxant a principis de la dècada de 1930 per diverses raons.[11] Ela que van abandonar el mandat van acabar a Síria, França, Armènia, els Estats Units d'Amèrica i la resta d'Europa, en aquest ordre. La població armènia va patir un retrocés final durant massacres continuades i atrocitats durant el període de 1920-1923, durant la guerra d'independència turca. Els que van patir més van ser els armenis que van quedar a l'est i sur del país, i els grecs pòntics a la regió de la Mar Negra.

Al final de la dècada de 1920, sols un nombre testimonial d'armenis no convertits va restar a Turquia distribuïts molt dispersament a través de tots ele país, amb l'única població armènia viable a Istanbul i les seves rodalies. En el moment de l'establiment de la República de Turquia, la província de Hatay era part de Síria, i per aquesta raó aquesta àrea encara té algunes comunitats armènies establertes i reconegudes oficialment.

DemografiaModifica

A causa de diversos esdeveniments a Turquia durant l'últim segle els armenis a Turquia van patir massacres, forçats a amagar-se i convertir-se forçosament a l'islamisme, i això els va dividir entre diferents grups. Hi ha tres grups: armenis cristians, cripto-armenis i armenis musulmans. Els armenis cristians són en la major part dels casos una part de la minoria reconeguda, però també poden incloure els cripto-armenis que no estan reconeguts legalment com armenis però s'identifiquen com armenis i cristians, i per últim immigrants armenis a Turquia. Els cripto-armenis són armenis identificats legalment com a turcs i o bé són cristians i reconeixen obertament la seva identitat, o bé amaguen la seva identitat i practiquen el cripto-cristianisme o l'islam, o bé s'identifiquen obertament com armenis i practiquen l'islam o no coneixen la seva etnicitat en absolut. Es desconeix el total combinat de tots els armenis a Turquia, ate que el total de persones que són cripto-armenis és difícil de determinar, amb unes estimacions que van de 30.000 a alguns milions depenent de l'amplitud dels estàndards que usen els estudis per considerar els cripto-armenis. Tot i així, el total d'armenis immigrants i els que formen part de la minoria reconeguda s'estimaria en uns 150.000-170.000. Una altra estadística seria la quantitat de persones que són membres del Patriarcat Armeni de Constantinoble, d'uns 95.000.

Cristians armenisModifica

La població armènia cristiana oficialment reconeguda s'estima entre 50.000 i 70.000 persones, que viuen principalment a Istanbul i els seus voltants. Gairebé tots són membres de la Esglèsia Apostòlica Armènia, de la Església Catòlica Armènia i de la Església Evangèlica Armènia. El nombre de cristians armenis està disminuint per un cantó a causa de l'emigració a Europa, Amèrica o Austràlia, però per un altre cantó s'incrementa a causa d'immigrants d'Armènia per motius laborals, o de cripto-armenis que decideixen identificar-se plenament com armenis i convertir-se al cristianisme. Tot i així la major part del creixement no es registra a les dades oficials, atès que els cripto-armenis no figuren com a part de la minoria reconeguda per les lleis turques sobre les minories reconegudes (armenis, grecs i jueus). Quant als immigrants armenis, la majoria no poden integrar-se a la minoria reconeguda perquè són immigrants i·legals. el nombre de cristians armenis de jure és més petit que el nombre de facto.

La minoria armènia és reconeguda com un «millet» separat al sistema turc, i té les seves pròpies institucions religioses, culturals, socials i educatives així com a premsa pròpia. La comunitat armènia turca té dificultats per mantenir totes aquestes institucions a causa de la demanda decreixent per l'emigració creixent de la comunitat i les dificultats econòmiques associades.

Regions amb cristians armenisModifica

IstanbulModifica

La comunitat armènia a Istanbul és la més gran a Turquia, a causa que va ser l'únic lloc on els cristians armenis van ser protegits parcialment en el moment de la creació de Turquia després del genocidi armeni. Altres factors poden ser que el patriarcat tingui la seva seu central a la ciutat, i l'economia i qualitat de vida de la ciutat que atrau a immigrants armenis el que va permetre a la comunitat mantenir nombres estables de població. Això va contrarestar la discriminació i emigració constant, i, a contrari de la comunitat grega, que en comparació no va tenir pràcticament immigració i avui en dia sols té entre 2 i 3 mil membres majorment ancians, malgrat que originalment tenia molt més membres que la comunitat armènia.

Algunes de les àrees més importants d'armenis a Istanbul són els districtes de Pangaltı i Kumkapı. A Kumkapi hi ha el patriarcat, i es coneix pels seus nombrosos restaurants de peix i les seves esglésies històriques. Una de les diferències principals és que Kumbapi és majorment apostòlic mentre que Pangalti té una barreja d'apostòlics i catòlics. Kumkapi està localitzada a la ciutat vella, mentre que Pangalti està a la part nova.

Província de HatayModifica

Iskenderun té una petita església armènia, i una comunitat d'una dotzena d'armenis.[12]

Vakıflı Köyü (Armenian: ՎաքիֆVakif) és l'únic poble d'ètnia completament armènia que queda a Turquia. Aquest poble i 6 altres van poder sobreviure al genocidi armeni a la defensa de Musa Dagh. Aquest poble existeix avui en dia a causa que part de la població va decidir quedar-se després que la província de Hatay va ser invadida i annexada per Turquia el 1939, mentre que la població dels altres 6 pobles van decidir marxar.[13][14] Està localitzat als pendents de Musa Dagh al districte de Samandağ de la província de Hatay. El poble té vistes a la Mar Mediterrània i està molt a prop de la frontera amb Síria. Hi viuen uns 130 armenis turcs,[14], mentre que unes 300 persones originàries del poble retornen per visitar durant l'estiu.

Immigració des d'ArmèniaModifica

La presència de cristians armenis es reforça per un flux constant d'immigrants principalment il·legals des d'Armènia que busquen residir a Turquia buscant millors oportunitats de treball, on la diferència de salaris pots ser força significativa.[15] Malgrat una opinió pública negativa a Armènia sobre «un armeni que treballa per a un turc», com a resultat d'un segle de relacions difícils entre els dos països, el 2010 hi havia entre 22.000 i 25.000 ciutadans armenis vivint il·legalment sols a Istanbul, d'acord amb les autoritats turques,[16] i un total estimat de 100.000. Molts d'ells estan empleats com a servei domèstic a llars turques, com ara cuinant o netejant..[17] D'acord amb una enquesta de 2009 de 150 immigrants treballadors armenis, la major part són dones.[16] El 2010, en mig de l'impuls per al reconeixment dels esdeveniments de 1915 com a genocidi, el primer ministre Erdoğan va amenaçar amb la deportació dels immigrants il·legals cap a Armènia,[18] però la situació es va calmar gradualment. Alguns immigrants armenis no es plantegen tornar al seu país en haver-se adaptat a la vida a Turquia.[16] A partir del 2011, els fills de ciutadans armenis que viuen il·legalment a Istanbul han estat admesos a escoles de la minoria armènia, però en no ser ciutadans turcs, no poden rebre títols oficials en acabar el curs.[19][20]

Armenis musulmansModifica

HemshinsModifica

A Turquia hi ha també els Hopa Hemshinli (també anomenats ocasionalment com Hemshinli orientals a algunes publicaciones) que són musulmans sunnites d'origen i cultura armènia que es van convertir a l'islam durant la dominació otomana o anteriorment, i viuen principalment als comtats de Hopa i Borçka counties de la província turca Artvin. A més de turc, parlen un dialecte del armeni occidental que ells anomenen «Homshetsma» o «Hemşince» en turc.[21]

Altres armenisModifica

Cripto-armenisModifica

Armenis ocults o cripto-armenis[22] és un terme genèric per descriure persones a Turquia «d'origen ètnic armeni complet o parcial que generalment oculten la seva identitat armènia de la societat turca més àmplia.»[23] Són descendent d'armeni de Turquia que es van islamitzar o es van amagar entre els kurds o els turcs per salvar les seves vides, per evitar la deportació o la pèrdua de propietats durant el genocidi armeni.[24] Les maneres en que es van convertir van ser diverses, entre d'altres òrfenes adoptats per famílies musulmanes, dones armènies que van ser casades amb soldats, i famílies senceres que es van unir a comunitats que les van acceptar. Aquesta última opció es diu que va succeir en massa a la província de Dersim (Tunceli).

Molts criptos ignoren completament el seu origen armeni, i viuen com a turcs o kurds, mentre que d'altres saben que són armenis però l'oculten per por a la discriminació.

Afiliació religiosaModifica

El cripto-armenis no es poden classificar ni com musulmans ni com cristians. Alguns practiquen el cripto-cristianisme, camuflant-se com a musulmans, mentre que molts practiquen l'islamisme genuïnament. Molts criptos que es van acabar identificant com armenis també practiquen el cristianisme, sent una pràctica comuna entre els que acaben reconeixent la seva etnicitat el rebre el baptisme cristrià. Tot i així, alguns dels que reconeixen l'etnicitat, no canvien la seva religió, i continuen practicant l'islamisme. Fins i tot alguns practiquen ambdues religions depenent del lloc on siguin.[25] Això pot ser degut simplement a la manca d'esglésies, i per als Armenis identificats que són musulmans, la port a extremistes.[26]

PolíticaModifica

Els partits polítics tradicionals armenis eren molt actius a la vida política dels armennis de Turquia des de la dècada de 1890 fins almenys 1915. Incloïen la Federació Revolucionaària armenia (Daixnaksutiun), el Partit Socialdemòcrata Hunchak i el Partit Armenakan, el predecessor del Partit Liberal Democràtic Armeni (Partit Ramgavar). Però les activitats de tots aquests partits armenis van ser retallades després de 1915.,[cal citació] i els partits ètcnics o religiosos estan prohibits «de jure» a Turquia[cal citació]

Hi ha algunes referències de que a principis de la dècada de 1920 hi havia alguns armenis al moviment de Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, fins i tot ajudant-lo activament en el seu Moviment Nacional Turc i donant suport a la ideologia kemalista i el moviment secularista. El armenis percebien l'estat secular establert per Atatürk com un mecanisme de supervivència dels armenis que havien quedat a Turquia.[cal citació]

L'impost a la riquesa conegut coma Varlik Vergisi, un impost a Turquia carregat sobre els ciutadans rics basat en una llei aprovada al novbembre de 1942, amb el propòsit declarat de recaptar fons per al cas d'una eventual entrada a la Segona Guerra Mundial, va tindre efectes devastadors sobre les minories ètniques a Turquia, i de manera especial sobre la comunitat armenia.[27][28] La llei draconiana va ser criticada durament, atès que els propietaris van haver de vendre molts dels sesus actius a preus molt reduïts o els actius van ser confiscats per les autoritats. Aquesta llei impopular va ser derogada el 15 de març de 1944.

Els armenis de Turquia també eren molt crítics sobre l'Exèrcit Secret Armeni per a l'Alliberament d'Armènia (ASALA), els Commandos Justícia contra el Genocidi Armeni (JCAG), l'Exèrcit Revolucionari Armeni (ARA) i altres organitzacions guerrilleres armènies quant al rol que aquestes organitzacions jugaven atacant diplomàtics i interessos turcs a tot el món en el moment més alt de la seva campanya anti-turca durant la dècada de 1970 i 1980. El temors del armenis turcs eren justificats pel fet que molts cops les institucions turc-armènies i fins i tot els centres religiosos eren objecte d'amenaces i atacs reals amb bombes com a represàlia pels actes d'ASALA, JCAG, ARA i altres.

L'armeni turc Artin Penik va suicidar-se el 1982 per immolació en protesta per l'atac terrorista del 7 d'agost de 1982 a l'aeroport internacional d'Ankara [29] per l'Exèrcit Secret Armeni per a l'Alliberament d'Armènia. Penik died five days after he set himself on fire in Taksim plaza, the main square of Istanbul, Turkey, and his stance was reflected by the Turkish mass media as a protest of most Turkish-Armenians against such attacks. Nine people had been killed and more than 70 wounded in the attack on the Turkish airport.

Un altre punt turbulent per a la comunitat armènia de Turquia va ser el molt publicitat judici del pistoler armeni i un dels perpetradors de l'atac, Levon Ekmekjian de 25 anys, que va ser considerat culpable i eventualment penjat a la presó civil d'Ankara el 30 de Juny de 1983. Havia estat sentenciat a mort al setembre de 1982 després de confessar que havia portat a terme l'atac a l'aeroport amb una altre militant d'ASALA, i malgrat que va condemnar públicament els actes violentes durant el seu propi judici i que va demanar als militants armenis que aturessin la violència.

La Comissió Turca Armènai per la Reconciliació (TARC)[30] es va establi al juliol de 2001 com a projecte conjunt d'uns quants intel·lectuals turcs i armenis i experts polítics per discutir diversos aspectes de les relacions armènies-turques i per aprovar una sèrie de recomanacions als governs de Turquia i Armènia sobre com millorar les deteriorades relacions entre els dos països.

Thousands of Turks joined Turkish intellectuals in publicly apologizing for the World War I era mass killings and deportations of Armenians in the Ottoman Empire. The unprecedented apology was initiated by a group of 200 Turkish academics, journalists, writers and artists disagreeing with the official Turkish version of what many historians consider the first genocide of the 20th century. Their petition, entitled "I apologize", was posted on a special website http://www.ozurdiliyoruz.com/.

On the occasion of a World Cup qualifying match between the two national football teams of Turkey and Armenia in the Armenian capital Yerevan, and following the Armenian President Serzh Sargsyan's invitation to attend the match, on 6 September 2008, the Turkish President Abdullah Gül paid a breakthrough landmark visit to Armenia that he said "promises hope for the future" for the two countries.[31] The Armenian president Sargsyan will reciprocate the visit to Turkey during 2009.[32]

Local politicsModifica

The Armenians in Turkey used to be active in Turkish politics. The Turkish-Armenian Sarkis "Aghparik" Cherkezian and Aram Pehlivanyan (Nickname: Ahmet Saydan) played a pivotal role in the founding of the Turkish Communist Party. There used to be Armenian activists in many other Turkish political parties as well. In 2015, three Turkish-Armenians, Garo Paylan (Peoples' Democratic Party), Markar Esayan (Justice and Development Party), and Selina Özuzun Doğan (Republican People's Party)—were elected, and became the first Armenians to be elected as Member of Parliament to the Grand National Assembly of Turkey since 1961.[33]

Hrant Dink, the Turkish-Armenian journalist, writer and political activist, and the chief editor and publisher of Agos had carved himself a position of that of a very prominent figure for conveying the ideas and aspirations of the Armenian community in Turkey not only for Turkish-Armenians but for many Armenians worldwide. His newspaper Agos had played an important role in presenting Armenian historical grievances through publishing of articles and opinions in the Turkish language addressed to the Turkish public opinion. His assassination[34] in front of his newspaper offices on January 19, 2007 turned into an occasion for expression of national grief throughout Turkey and the rallying of great support for the concerns of the Armenian community in Turkey by the general Turkish public.

Protests in Istanbul during the funeral of murdered journalist Hrant Dink where more than 100,000 people marched.[35] Protesters hold banners saying "We are all Hrant, we are all Armenians". (panorama from Halaskargazi Boulevard in Şişli district)

Dink was best known for advocating Turkish-Armenian reconciliation and human and minority rights in Turkey; he was often critical of both Turkey's denial of the Armenian Genocide, and of the Armenian diaspora's campaign for its international recognition. Dink was prosecuted three times for denigrating Turkishness, while receiving numerous death threats from Turkish nationalists. At his funeral, one hundred thousand mourners marched in protest of the assassination, chanting "We are all Armenians" and "We are all Hrant Dink". Criticism of Article 301 became increasingly vocal after his death, leading to parliamentary proposals for repeal of the law.

ReligionModifica

 
Surp Krikor Lusavoriç Kilisesi (St. Gregory The Enlightener Church) in Kuzguncuk, Üsküdar, Istanbul.
 
Assumption Armenian Catholic Church in Büyükada, Adalar, Istanbul.

Religious affiliationModifica

Virtually all Armenians who are officially registered as part of the Armenian Minority are Christians, and are either of the Armenian Apostolic, Catholic, or less commonly Protestant denominations. The religion of others and those not officially part of the minority is elaborated on in the Demographics section.

Armenian Patriarchate of ConstantinopleModifica

The Armenian Patriarchate of Istanbul (officially Armenian Patriarchate of Constantinople) is, since 1461, the religious head of the Armenian community in Turkey. The Armenian Patriarchate of Constantinople has exerted a very significant political role earlier and today still exercises a spiritual authority, which earns it considerable respect among Orthodox churches. The Armenian Patriarchate of Constantinople recognizes the primacy of the Supreme Patriarch and Catholicos of All Armenians, in the spiritual and administrative headquarters of the Armenian Church, the Mother See of Holy Etchmiadzin, Vagharshapat, Republic of Armenia, in matters that pertain to the worldwide Armenian Church. In local matters, the Patriarchal See is autonomous.

Archbishop Patriarch Mesrob II Mutafyan of Constantinople is the 84th Armenian Patriarch of Constantinople under the authority of the Supreme Patriarch and Catholicos of All Armenians.

Armenian Catholic Archdiocese of ConstantinopleModifica

The Armenian Catholic Archdiocese of Constantinople is based in Istanbul and in 2008 reported 3,650 followers.

Christmas date, etiquette and customsModifica

Armenians celebrate Christmas at a date later than most of the Christians, on 6 January rather than 25 December. The reason for this is historical; according to Armenians, Christians once celebrated Christmas on 6 January, until the 4th century. 25 December was originally a pagan holiday that celebrated the birth of the sun. Many members of the church continued to celebrate both holidays, and the Roman church changed the date of Christmas to be 25 December and declared January 6 to be the date when the three wise men visited the baby Jesus. As the Armenian Apostolic Church had already separated from the Roman church at that time, the date of Christmas remained unchanged for Armenians.[36]

The Armenians in Turkey refer to Christmas as Surp Dzınunt (Holy Birth) and have fifty days of preparation called Hisnag before Christmas. The first, fourth and seventh weeks of Hisnag are periods of vegetarian fast for church members and every Saturday at sunset a new purple candle is lit with prayers and hymns. On the second day of Christmas, 7 January, families visit graves of relatives and say prayers.[37]

Armenian Churches in TurkeyModifica

Turkey has hundreds of Armenian churches, however the majority of which are either in ruins or are being used for other purposes. Armenian churches still in active use belong to various denominations, mainly Armenian Apostolic, but also Armenian Catholic and Armenian Evangelical Protestant.[38]

EducationModifica

Turkey’s Armenian community faces educational problems due to the steadily decreasing number of students every school year and lack of funding. The number of Armenian schools decreases year by year. This number has fallen from 47 to 17 today with currently 3,000 Armenian students, down from 6,000 Armenian students in 1981.[2] Schools are kindergarten through 12th grade (K–12), kindergarten through 8th grade (K-8) or 9th grade through 12th (9–12). Ermeni İlköğretim Okulu means "Armenian primary+secondary school". Ermeni Lisesi means "Armenian high school". The Armenian schools apply the full Turkish curriculum in addition to Armenian subjects, mainly Armenian language, literature and religion.

In September 2011, the Turkish government recognized the right of immigrant families from Armenia to send their children to schools of the Turkey's Armenian community. This move came as a result of lobbying of Deputy Patriarch Aram Ateşyan, according to whom there were some 1,000 children of Armenian immigrants in Turkey at that time.[39] However, as they are not Turkish citizens, at the end of the school term, they do not receive diplomas.[40]

K-8
9–12
K–12

HealthModifica

Among other institutions, Turkish Armenians also have their own long-running hospitals:

LanguageModifica

The majority of Armenians in Turkey speak Turkish. Only about 18% of them can speak Armenian, and most of that number are bilingual, with some having Armenian as their first language, and others learning it as a second language. [2]

Western ArmenianModifica

Article principal: Western Armenian

Western Armenian (armeni: Արեւմտահայերէն pronounced Arevmedahayeren), armeni: Արեւմտեան աշխարհաբար pronounced Arevmedyan Ashkharhapar, (and earlier known as armeni: Թրքահայերէն, namely "Trkahayeren" (Turkish-Armenian)) are one of the two modern dialects of the modern Armenian, an Indo-European language.

The Western Armenian dialect was developed in the early part of the 19th century, based on the Armenian dialect of the Armenians in Istanbul, to replace many of the Armenian dialects spoken throughout Turkey.

It was widely adopted in literary Armenian writing and in Armenian media published in the Ottoman Empire, as well as large parts of the Armenian Diaspora and in modern Turkey. Partly because of this, Istanbul veritably became the cultural and literary center of the Western Armenians in the 19th and early 20th century.

Western Armenian is the language spoken by almost all of the Armenian diaspora. The only diaspora community that uses Eastern Armenian is the Iranian Armenian community, or those who immigrated from Armenia. Nevertheless, Western Armenian is the primary dialect of Armenian found in North and South America, Europe (except those in Russia) and most of the Middle East (except in Iran and Armenia). Western Armenian is the primary language of the diaspora because the great majority of the Armenian diaspora in all these areas (Europe, Americas, Middle East) was formed in the 19th and early 20th century by Armenian populations from the Ottoman Empire, which is where Western Armenian was historically spoken.

Neverthless, The Western Armenian language is still spoken by a small minority of the present-day Armenian community in Turkey. However, Only 18 percent of the Armenian community speaks Western Armenian, while 82 percent of the Armenian community speaks Turkish. This percentage is even lower among younger people of whom only 8 percent speaks Western Armenian and 92 percent speaks Turkish.[2] Turkish is replacing Western Armenian as a mother language, and UNESCO has added Western Armenian in its annual "Atlas of the World’s Languages in Danger" where the Western Armenian language in Turkey is defined as a definitely endangered language.[3][41]

The Western Armenian language is markedly different in grammar, pronunciation and spelling from the Eastern Armenian language spoken in Armenia, Iran and Russia, although they are both mutually intelligible. Western Armenian still keeps the classical Armenian orthography known as Mashdotsian Spelling, whereas Eastern Armenian adopted reformed spelling in the 1920s (Eastern Armenian in Iran did not adopt this reform then).

Armeno-Turkish (Turkish in Armenian alphabet)Modifica

From the early 18th century until around 1950, and for almost 250 years, more than 2000 books were printed in the Turkish language using letters of the Armenian alphabet. This is popularly known as Armeno-Turkish.

Armeno-Turkish was not used just by Armenians, but also many non-Armenian elite (including the Ottoman Turkish intellectuals) could actually read the Armenian-alphabet Turkish language texts.

The Armenian alphabet was also used alongside the Arabic alphabet on official documents of the Ottoman Empire, written in Ottoman Turkish. For example, the Aleppo edition of the official gazette of the Ottoman Empire, called "Frat" (Turkish and Arabic for the Euphrates) contained a Turkish section of laws printed in Armenian alphabet.

Also very notably, the first novel to be written in the Ottoman Empire was 1851's Akabi Hikayesi, written by Armenian statesman, journalist and novelist Vartan Pasha (Hovsep Vartanian) in Ottoman Turkish, was published with Armenian script. Akabi Hikayesi depicted an impossible love story between two young people coming from two different communities amidst hostility and adversity.

When the Armenian Duzian family managed the Ottoman mint during the reign of Abdülmecid I, they kept their records in Ottoman Turkish written in Armenian script.[42]

Great collection of Armeno-Turkish could be found in Christian Armenian worship until the late 1950s. The Bible used by many Armenians in the Ottoman Empire was not only the Bible versions printed in Armenian, but also at times the translated Turkish language Bibles using the Armenian alphabet. Usage continued in Armenian church gatherings specially for those who were Turkophones rather than Armenophones. Many of the Christian spiritual songs used in certain Armenian churches were also in Armeno-Turkish.

Armenians and the Turkish languageModifica

 
The Armenian school in Kumkapi, Istanbul (next to the Surp Asdvadzadzin Patriarchal Church)

Armenians played a key role in the promotion of the Turkish language including the reforms of the Turkish language initiated by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk.

Bedros Keresteciyan, the Ottoman linguist completed the first etymological dictionary of Turkish. Armenians contributed considerably to the development of printing in Turkey: Tokatlı Apkar Tıbir started a printing house in Istanbul in 1567, the historian Eremia Çelebi, Merzifonlu Krikor, Sivaslı Parseh, Hagop Brothers, Haçik Kevorkyan Abraham from Thrace, Eğinli Bogos Arabian, Hovannes Muhendisian, Rephael Kazancian were among many. Bogos Arabian issued the first Turkish daily newspaper, Takvim-i Vekayi and its translation to Armenian. Hovannes Muhendisian is known as the "Turkish Gutenberg". Haçik Kevorkyan updated the Ottoman Turkish alphabet. Yervant Mısırlıyan developed and implemented publishing books in installments for the first time in the Ottoman Empire. Kasap Efendi, published the first Comic magazine Diyojen in 1870. [cal citació]

Agop Dilâçar (1895–1979) was a Turkish Armenian linguist who had great contribution to the reform of Turkish language. He specialized in Turkic languages and was the first Secretary General and head specialist of the Turkish Language Association (TLA) from its establishment in 1932 until 1979. In addition to Armenian and Turkish, Martayan knew English, Greek, Spanish, Latin, German, Russian and Bulgarian. He was invited on September 22, 1932, as a linguistics specialist to the First Turkish Language Congress supervised by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk. Istepan Gurdikyan (1865–1948), linguist, Turcologist, educator and academic and Kevork Şimkeşyan both ethnic Armenians were also prominent speakers at the first Turkish Language Conference. Agop Martayan Dilaçar continued his work and research on the Turkish language as the head specialist and Secretary General of the newly founded Turkish Language Association in Ankara. Atatürk suggested him the surname Dilaçar (literally meaning language opener), which he accepted. He taught history and language at Ankara University between 1936 and 1951 and was the head advisor of the Türk Ansiklopedisi (Turkish Encyclopedia), between 1942 and 1960. He held his position and continued his research in linguistics at the Turkish Language Association until his death in 1979.

CultureModifica

Armenians try to keep a rich cultural life and do participate in the Turkish art scene.

MusicModifica

The pan-Turkish Kardeş Türküler cultural and musical formation, in addition to performing a rich selection of Turkish, Kurdish, Georgian, Arabic and gypsy musical numbers, also includes a number of beautiful interpretation of Armenian traditional music in its repertoire. It gave sold-out concerts in Armenia as part of the Turkish-Armenian Cultural Program, which was made possible with support from USAID.

The "Sayat-Nova" choir was founded in 1971 under the sponsorship of the St. Children’s Church of Istanbul performs traditional Armenian songs and studies and interprets Armenian folk music.

In classical opera music and theatre, Toto Karaca was a major figure on the stage. In the folk tradition, the effect of Udi Hrant Kenkulian as a legendary oud player is indisputable.

In contemporary music, Arto Tunçboyacıyan and his brother the late Onno Tunç are two veritable jazz musicians, composers and arrangers. The Turkish rock artist Yaşar Kurt declared he was of ethnic Armenian descent. Another famous Armenian rock musician is Hayko Cepkin. Hayko Tataryan is also well known for singing in Turkish, Armenian and Greek, so is his son Alex Tataryan. Very recently the Turkish-Armenian singer Sibil Pektorosoğlu (better known by her mononym Sibil) has become popular winning pan-Armenian music prizes for her recordings.

Cinema and actingModifica

In movie acting, special mention should be made of Vahi Öz who appeared in countless movies from the 1940s until the late 1960s, Sami Hazinses (real name Samuel Agop Uluçyan) who appeared in tens of Turkish movies from the 1950s until the 1990s and Nubar Terziyan who appeared in more than 400 movies.Movie actor and director Kenan Pars (real name Kirkor Cezveciyan) and theatre and film actress Irma Felekyan (aka Toto Karaca), who was mother of Cem Karaca.

PhotographyModifica

In photography Ara Güler is a famous photojournalist of Armenian descent, nicknamed "the Eye of Istanbul" or "the Photographer of Istanbul".

LiteratureModifica

Turkish Armenian novelists, poets, essayists and literary critics continue to play a very important role particularly in the literary scene of the Armenian diaspora, with works of quality in Western Armenian.

Robert Haddedjian chief editor of Marmara newspaper published in Istanbul remains a pivotal figure in the literary criticism scene. Zareh Yaldizciyan (1923–2007), better known by his pen name Zahrad was a renowned Western Armenian poet.

MediaModifica

Istanbul was home to a number of long-running and influential Armenian publications. Very notable now-defunct daily newspapers included Arevelk (1884–1915), Puzantyon (1896–1908), Sourhantag (1899–1908), Manzoume Efkyar (1912–1917), Vertchin Lour (1914–1924). Outside Istanbul, the notable daily publications included Arshalouys (1909–1914), Tashink (1909–1914) and Van (1908–1909).

Presently, Istanbul has two Armenian language dailies. These two newspapers, Jamanag (established in 1908) and Marmara also have a long tradition of keeping alive the Turkish Armenian literature, which is an integral part of the Western Armenian language and Armenian literature.

  • Jamanag (Ժամանակ in Armenian meaning time) is a long-running Armenian language daily newspaper published in Istanbul, Turkey. The daily was established in 1908 by Misak Kochounian and has been somewhat a family establishment, given that it has been owned by the Kochounian family since its inception. After Misak Kochounian, it was passed down to Sarkis Kochounian, and since 1992 is edited by Ara Kochounian.
  • Marmara, [7] daily in Armenian (Armenian: Մարմարա) (sometimes "Nor Marmara" - New Marmara) is an Armenian-language daily newspaper published since 1940 in Istanbul, Turkey. It was established by Armenian journalist Souren Shamlian. Robert Haddeler took over the paper in 1967. Marmara is published six times a week (except on Sundays). The Friday edition contains a section in Turkish as well. Circulation is reported at 2000 per issue.
  • Agos, [8] (Armenian: Ակօս, "Furrow") is a bilingual Armenian weekly newspaper published in Istanbul in Turkish and Armenian. It was established on 5 April 1996. Today, it has a circulation of around 5,000. Besides Armenian and Turkish pages, the newspaper has an on-line English edition as well. Hrant Dink was its chief editor from the newspaper's start until his assassination outside of the newspaper's offices in Istanbul in January 2007. Hrant Dink's son Arat Dink served as the executive editor of the weekly after his assassination.
  • Lraper, [9] (Լրաբեր in Armenian) is a trilingual periodical publication in Armenian, Turkish and English languages and is the official organ of the Armenian Patriarchate of Constantinople

Other Armenian media titles include: Sourp Pergiç (St. Saviour) the magazine of the Armenian Sourp Pergiç (Pergitch) Hospital, also Kulis, Shoghagat, Norsan and the humorous Jbid (smile in Armenian)

In September 2011, the Turkish government granted some financing to Jamanak, Marmara and Agos as part of a wider campaign in support of existing minority newspapers in Turkey.[43] The Turkish Press Advertisement Agency also declared intention to publish official government advertisements in minority newspapers including Armenian ones.[44]

Famous Turkish-ArmeniansModifica

Turkish Armenians in the DiasporaModifica

Despite leaving their homes in Turkey, the Turkish Armenians traditionally establish their own unions within the Armenian Diaspora. Usually named "Bolsahay Miutyun"s (Istanbul-Armenian Associations), they can be found in their new adopted cities of important Turkish-Armenian populations. Among them are the "Organization of Istanbul Armenians of Los Angeles", the "Istanbul Armenian Association in Montreal", etc.

The Turkish Ambassador in Berlin, Hüseyin Avni Karslıoğlu, inaugurated in December 2012 at the Bergen-Belsen Concentration Camp a memorial stone with bronze letters (third of its kind after the Polish and Dutch similars) to the memory of eight Turkish citizens killed during the Holocaust, one of whom is a Turkish Armenian with the name Garabed Taşçıyan.[45]

See alsoModifica

ReferencesModifica

  1. Khojoyan, Sara «Armenians in Istanbul: Diaspora in Turkey welcomes the setting of relations and waits more steps from both countries». ArmeniaNow.com, 16-10-2009 [Consulta: 5 gener 2013].
  2. 2,0 2,1 2,2 2,3 Helix Consulting LLC. «Turkologist Ruben Melkonyan publishes book "Review of Istanbul’s Armenian community history"». [Consulta: 11 juny 2015].
  3. 3,0 3,1 UNESCO Culture Sector, UNESCO Interactive Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger, 2009
  4. Turay, Anna. «Tarihte Ermeniler». Bolsohays: Istanbul Armenians. Arxivat de l'original el 6 December 2006. [Consulta: 4 gener 2007].
  5. Hür, Ayşe «Türk Ermenisiz, Ermeni Türksüz olmaz!» (en turkish). Taraf, 31-08-2008 [Consulta: 2 setembre 2008]. «Sonunda nüfuslarını 70 bine indirmeyi başardık.»
  6. McCarthy, 1983.
  7. Kevorkian i Paboudjian, 1992.
  8. /gen_bib1.html Àmplia bibliografia a la Universitat de Michigan sobre el genocidi armeni
  9. Kaplan, Sefa «Son yıllarda bu kadar müspet tepki almadım» (en turkish). Hürriyet, 30-09-2005 [Consulta: Agost 2008]. «Anadolu’da anneanneniz gibi 300 bin kadın bulunduğu söyleniyor.»
  10. (Başyurt 2005). Hrant Dink: "300 bin rakamının abartılı olduğunu düşünmüyorum. Bence daha da fazladır."
  11. Error en el títol o la url.«». Armenian Weekly.
  12. «Iskenderun: Catholic Church - Katolik Kilisesi - Chiesa Cattolica - Katholischer Church». anadolukatolikkilisesi.org.
  13. Kalkan, Ersin «Türkiye'nin tek Ermeni köyü Vakıflı» (en turc). Hürriyet, 31-07-2005 [Consulta: 22 febrer 2007].
  14. 14,0 14,1 Campbell, Verity. Turkey. Lonely Planet, 2007. ISBN 1-74104-556-8. 
  15. http://www.aljazeera.com/news/2015/04/armenian-immigrants-life-turkey-150420070803126.html Cita: «I earn $600 a month, which is more than twice the money I would earn in Armenia» («Guanyo $600 al mes que és més del doble del que puc guanyar a Armènia»
  16. 16,0 16,1 16,2 Grigoryan, Marianna; Hayrapetyan, Anahit «Turkey: Armenian Illegal Migrants Put National Grievances Aside for Work» (en anglès). EurasiaNet, 02-09-2011.
  17. Gevorg Ter-Gabrielyan. Armenia and the Caucasus: Crossroad or Dead-End?.
  18. Suna Erdem. Recep Tayyip Erdogan threatens to expel 100,000 illegal Armenians. The Times. 18 March 2010. consultate el 8 de setembre de 2011.
  19. Armenian Children to Be Educated. Hürriyet. setembre 2 de 2011, consultat el 8 de setembre de 2011.
  20. «Children of Armenian irregular immigrants to attend community schools in Turkey» (en anglès). PanARMENIAN.Net.
  21. Ibit, Uwe Blasing, "Armenian in the vocabulary and culture of the Turkish Hemshinli".
  22. Ziflioğlu, Vercihan «Hidden Armenians in Turkey expose their identities» (en anglès). Hürriyet Daily News, 24-06-2011 [Consulta: 13 novembre 2013].
  23. Ziflioğlu, Vercihan «'Elective courses may be ice-breaker for all'». Hürriyet Daily News, 19-06-2012 [Consulta: 24 juny 2013].
  24. Khanlaryan, Karen. «The Armenian ethnoreligious elements in the Western Armenia», 29-09-2005. [Consulta: 16 juny 2013].
  25. http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/culture/2013/02/turkey-secret-armenians.html# cita- «Jazo Uzal, a villager from the province of Mus, goes to church in Istanbul, where he spends the winters, but when he returns home during the summer he observes the Muslim rites of worship, including fasting.»(«Jazu Uzal, que viu a un poble de la província de Mus, va a l'església a Istanbul, on passa els hiverns, però quan retorna a casa durant l'estiu observa els rituals musulmans, fins i tot el dejuni
  26. http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/culture/2013/10/turkish-armenians-rediscover-roots.html cita-«I am happy to see my father getting back in touch with his Armenian identity. However, I am afraid not only of the state but also of militant groups.»(«Estic content de veure el meu pare tornat a tenir contacte amb la seva identitat armènia. Malgrat això, tinc por no sols de l'estat sinó també de grups militants.»
  27. Güven, Dilek «6-7 Eylül Olayları (1)» (en turc). Radikal [Türkiye], 06-09-2005. «Nitekim 1942 yılında yürürlüğe giren Varlık Vergisi, Ermenilerin, Rumların ve Yahudilerin ekonomideki liderliğine son vermeyi hedeflemiştir...Seçim dönemleri CHP ve DP'nin Varlık Vergisi'nin geri ödeneceği yönündeki vaatleri ise seçim propagandasından ibarettir.»
  28. Smith, Thomas W. «Constructing A Human Rights Regime in Turkey: Dilemmas of Civic Nationalism and Civil Society.». Falta indicar la publicació, pàg. 4.
  29. «Turkey: A Cry for Bloody Vengeance». TIME.com, 23-08-1982. [Consulta: 11 juny 2015].
  30. «Turkish Armenian Reconciliation Commission». [Consulta: 11 juny 2015].
  31. «BBC NEWS - Europe - Gul in landmark visit to Armenia». BBC News, 06-09-2008 [Consulta: 11 juny 2015].
  32. Sputnik. «Armenian president to visit Turkey next year», 24-11-2008. [Consulta: 11 juny 2015].
  33. Armenian Observers in Turkey’s Parliamentary Election The Armenian Weekly, 9 June 2015, reached on June 9, 2015 [1]
  34. «BBC NEWS - Europe - Turkish-Armenian writer shot dead». BBC News, 19-01-2007 [Consulta: 11 juny 2015].
  35. Mass protest at editor's funeral The Guardian, 24 January 2007, reached on 2 February 2013 [2]
  36. «Why Do Armenians Celebrate Christmas on 6 January?». Armenian Patriarchate of Istanbul. [Consulta: 4 gener 2007].
  37. «Our New Year and Nativity/Theophany Traditions». Armenian Patriarchate of Istanbul. [Consulta: 4 gener 2007].
  38. «Armenians of Istanbul - Istanbul Armenians». [Consulta: 11 juny 2015].
  39. Armenian immigrant children to be allowed in minority schools Today's Zaman, 2 September 2011 [3]
  40. (turc) Gayrimüslimler için hayat tozpembe değil. [4]
  41. UNESCO: 15 Languages Endangered in Turkey, by T. Korkut, 2009
  42. Mansel, Philip. Constantinople. Hachette UK, 2011. ISBN 1848546475. 
  43. Dardaki azınlık gazetelerine bayram gecesi yardımı... Sabah, 8 September 2011 [5]
  44. Minority Newspaper Meets with The Turkish Press Advertising Agency Greek Europe Reporter, 28 July 2011 [6]
  45. «Berlin'in haber sitesi ha-ber.com Almanya ve Türkiye'den gazete manşetleri. Berlin news. Berlin Nachrichten». [Consulta: 11 juny 2015].

BibliografiaModifica

  • Başyurt, Erhan «Anneannem bir Ermeni'ymiş!» (en turkish). Aksiyon. Feza Gazetecilik A.Ş., vol. 577, 26-12-2005 [Consulta: 28 agost 2008].
  • Kevorkian, Raymond H.; Paboudjian, Paul b. Les Arméniens dans l'Empire Ottoman à la vielle du génocide (en francès). París: Arhis, 1992. ISBN 9782906755093. 
  • McCarthy, Justin. The Population of Ottoman Anatolia and the End of the Empire (en anglès). New York: New York University Press, 1983. ISBN 9780814753903. 

Further readingModifica

External linksModifica

A Wikimedia Commons hi ha contingut multimèdia relatiu a: Wgarcia/proves

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